Cato the Younger


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Cato the Younger

or

Cato of Utica,

95 B.C.–46 B.C., Roman statesman, whose full name was Marcus Porcius Cato; great-grandson of Cato the ElderCato the Elder
or Cato the Censor,
Lat. Cato Major or Cato Censorius, 234–149 B.C., Roman statesman and moralist, whose full name was Marcus Porcius Cato.
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. Reared by his uncle Marcus Livius Drusus, he showed an intense devotion to the principles of the early republic. He had one of the greatest reputations for honesty and incorruptibility of any man in ancient times, and his Stoicism put him above the graft and bribery of his day. His politics were extremely conservative, and his refusal to compromise made him unpopular with certain of his colleagues. He was from the first a violent opponent of Julius CaesarCaesar, Julius
(Caius Julius Caesar), 100? B.C.–44 B.C., Roman statesman and general. Rise to Power

Although he was born into the Julian gens, one of the oldest patrician families in Rome, Caesar was always a member of the democratic or popular party.
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 and, outdoing CiceroCicero
(Marcus Tullius Cicero) or Tully,
106 B.C.–43 B.C., greatest Roman orator, famous also as a politician and a philosopher. Life

Cicero studied law and philosophy at Rome, Athens, and Rhodes.
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 in vituperation of the conspiracy of CatilineCatiline
(Lucius Sergius Catilina) , c.108 B.C.–62 B.C., Roman politician and conspirator. At first a conservative and a partisan of Sulla, he was praetor in 68 B.C. and governor of Africa in 67 B.C.
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 in 63 B.C., tried to implicate Caesar in that plot, although maintaining his fairness to all. As a result he was sent (59 B.C.) to Cyprus by ClodiusClodius
(Publius Clodius Pulcher) , d. 52 B.C., Roman politician. He belonged to the Claudian gens (see Claudius), and his name is also written as Publius Claudius Pulcher. He was brother to Appius Claudius Pulcher and to the notorious Clodia. In 62 B.C.
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 in what amounted to exile. He and his party supported PompeyPompey
(Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus) , 106 B.C.–48 B.C., Roman general, the rival of Julius Caesar. Sometimes called Pompey the Great, he was the son of Cnaeus Pompeius Strabo (consul in 89 B.C.), a commander of equivocal reputation.
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 after the break with Caesar. He accompanied Pompey across the Adriatic and held Dyrrhachium (modern Durazzo) for him until after the defeat at Pharsalus. Then he and Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio (see ScipioScipio
, ancient Roman family of the Cornelian gens. They were patricians. During the 3d and 2d cent. B.C. they were distinguished by their love of Greek culture and learning.
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, family) went to Africa and continued the struggle against Caesar there. Cato was in command at Utica. After Caesar crushed (46 B.C.) Scipio at ThapsusThapsus
, ancient N African seaport, c.100 mi (161 km) SE of Carthage in what is now Tunisia. The last stronghold of Pompey's party, the town was besieged in 46 B.C. by Julius Caesar.
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, Cato committed suicide, bidding his people make their peace with Caesar. Cicero and Marcus Junius BrutusBrutus
, in ancient Rome, a surname of the Junian gens. Lucius Junius Brutus, fl. 510 B.C., was the founder of the Roman republic. He feigned idiocy to escape death at the hands of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (see under Tarquin).
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 (Cato's son-in-law) wrote eulogies of him while Caesar wrote his Anticato against him; the noble tragedy of his death has been the subject of many dramas. He became the symbol of probity in public life.
References in classic literature ?
I had the honour to have much conversation with Brutus; and was told, "that his ancestor Junius, Socrates, Epaminondas, Cato the younger, Sir Thomas More, and himself were perpetually together:" a sextumvirate, to which all the ages of the world cannot add a seventh.
There is a striking similarity between this predicament and that into which Cato the Younger (95-46 BC) was born in first-century BC Rome.
The American Founding Fathers looked to classical examples for inspiration, and Cato the Younger (to whom we shall refer simply as Cato) was for them a preeminent figure among the ancients.
One of the first exponents was Roman Senator Cato the Younger.
Belliotti interprets the character traits and seeming thought processes of famous Romans (such as Cicero, Cato the Younger, Caesar, Seneca, and Marcus Aurelius), especially at pivotal junctures in Roman history, through the lens of the major teachings of the philosophical schools.
The second chapter focuses on stoicism in action through the life of Cato the Younger.
Cato the Younger, according to Plutarch, wept bitter tears at the sight of thousands of dead Romans on the battlefield after Dyrrachium.
Cato the Younger, who was also in Africa, was informed of the defeat and of Caesar's great anxiousness to capture him as prelude to one of his famous reconciliations.
Washington was often compared in his day with Cato the Younger, of whom Plutarch had written that "every class of men in Utica could clearly see, with sorrow and admiration, how entirely free was everything that he was doing from any secret motives or any mixture of self-regard.
Both Cicero and his able colleague, Cato the Younger, believed Julius Caesar to be a member of Catiline's band, a belief that was apparently shared by many other contemporaries.
Indeed a clear example of this is Socrates, but it would not be fair to compare Socrates with Cato the Younger.
The Founders' principal Greco-Roman heroes were Roman statesmen: Cato the Younger, Brutus, Cassius and Cicero--all of whom sacrificed their lives in unsuccessful attempts to save the republic--as well as the celebrated Greek lawgivers Lycurgus and Solon.