native dairy cattle of the Caucasus. Caucasian cattle are descended from the old dwarf cattle of Egypt; they were brought to southern Europe and then to Asia Minor. They are divided into Greater and Lesser Caucasian cattle. Within the Greater Caucasian group are Dagestan, Khev-sur, Osetin, and Karachevo local breeds; the Lesser Caucasian group includes Kazakh, Karabakh, and Megrelian local breeds.
The differences in productivity among these local breeds are insignificant. The coat of Greater Caucasian cattle is black or dark red, of Lesser Caucasian cattle red or light red. Greater Caucasian cows weigh 200–250 kg, the bulls 350–400 kg; Lesser Caucasian cows weigh 250–300 kg, and the bulls 450–550 kg. Milk productivity is 800–1,000 kg of milk per year, sometimes as much as 4, 000 kg. Butterfat content of the milk is 3.7–5.7 percent. These cattle have low-quality meat.
Caucasian cattle are also used as work animals. They are being improved through cross breeding with Brown Swiss Simmental cattle. By crossing them with the Brown Swiss, the Caucasian Brown breed has been produced. Greater Caucasian cattle are raised in the mountains of the Greater Caucasus and in the lowland along the left bank of the Kura River; Lesser Caucasian cattle are raised in the uplands of the Lesser Caucasus and in the lowland along the right bank of the Kura up to its confluence with the Araks River.
E. A. ARZUMANIAN