Caudata


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Related to Caudata: Urodela

Caudata

[kau̇·dad·ə]
(vertebrate zoology)
An equivalent name for Urodela.

Caudata

 

(tailed amphibians), an order of amphibians. The somewhat cylindrical, sometimes greatly elongated, trunk is continuous with the relatively long tail, which is more or less rounded or laterally compressed.

Caudates swim in water by making lateral motions with the tail, pressing their legs to the body and extending them backward. The legs are short and in some representatives, such as Amphiuma, very weak. In the Sirenidae the hind legs are absent. The hind legs have two to five digits. The frontal and parietal bones are paired and not fused. The vertebrae are amphicoelous or opisthocoelous, and the trunk vertebrae have short ribs. The pectoral girdle is cartilaginous. The tibia and fibula are not fused.

Development occurs without metamorphosis. Some adult caudates, such as the Sirenidae and Proteidae, retain a number of features characteristic of the larvae, such as exterior gills, gill slits, and lateral-line organs. In larvae, usually the forelegs appear first. The body length is up to 160 cm (giant salamander).

The order includes 54 genera, united in eight families: Cryptobranchidae, Sirenidae, Proteidae, Salamandridae, Amphiumidae, Ambystomatidae, Plethodontidae, and Hynobiidae. There are about 130 species, which are distributed mainly in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere; only a few species are found in South America.

Most caudates are wholly aquatic; some live in cave waters, such as the Proteidae and the colorless and eyeless Typhlomolge rathbuni. Some live in water only during the reproductive period. A number of species are wholly terrestrial; a few caudates of the genus Aneides live in trees.

In some terrestrial caudates and in caudates living in rapidly flowing waters the lungs are usually more or less reduced or completely absent, and respiration occurs mainly through the mucosa of the mouth and pharynx, as well as through the skin. A small number of caudates, such as the Amphiumidae and Proteidae, breathe through gills even in the adult stage.

Sexual maturity occurs in the second to third year of life. Some caudates are characterized by neoteny. Some develop breeding colors and engage in a definite courtship during the reproductive period. In the majority, fertilization is internal, by means of a sperm-containing gelatinous capsule (spermatophore), which is taken up by the female into the spermatheca of the cloaca. Caudates deposit three to several hundred eggs. Terrestrial species deposit their eggs in a depression in the soil, beneath leaves, in rotten stumps, in tree hollows, and in other such places. Some species are viviparous or ovoviviparous.

Caudates feed mainly on various invertebrates; they also eat the eggs of fish and other amphibians. Large individuals even swallow small vertebrates. A few species, such as Mertensiella, can shed their tails (autotomy).

There are ten species of Caudata in the USSR, which belong to six genera: Hynobius, Ranodon, Onychodactylis fischeris, Triturus, Mertensiellae caucasicae, and Salamandra.

REFERENCES

Zhizn’ zhivotnykh, vol. 4. Moscow, 1969.
Noble, G. K. The Biology of the Amphibia. New York, 1954.
Bishop, S. C. Handbook of Salamanders: The Salamanders of the United States, of Canada and of Lower California. Ithaca-New York, 1943. (Handbooks of American Natural History, vol. 3. Edited by A. H. Wright.)
Thorn, R. Les Salamandres d’Europe, d’Asie, et d’Afrique du Nord. Paris, 1968.

I. S. DAREVSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Mallomonas caudata, Dinobryon divergens, and Chlamydomonas polypyrenoideum were the most common species that were collected from the all three depths.
Smilisca phaeota Leptodactylidae Leptodactylus ventrimaculatus Microhylidae Ranidae Nelsonophryne aterrima Lithobates vaillanti Pristimantis achatinus Strabomantidae Pristimantis labiosus Caudata Pristimantis latidiscus Pristimantis parvillus Plethodontidae Bolitoglossa biseriata Bolitoglossa medemi Oedipina parvipes Gymnophiona Caeciliidae Caecilia guntheri TOTAL 12 27 Orden Ind.
Growth and reproduction of the oyster drill Eupleura caudata (Say) in the York River, Virginia.
2009, Figueiredo de Andrade 2009, Albarelli and Santos-Acosta, 2010), have reported the feeding habits of some Liophis snakes, which included earthworms, arthropods, fishes, lizards, little amphibians (Anura and Caudata, including in some cases anuran larvae) and rodents.
Combined effect of salinity and temperature on the feeding, reproductive, and survival rates of Eupleura caudata (Say) (Prosobranchia: Muricidae).
0001) in the tropical dry forest of Santa Maria Tecomavaca, and Celtis caudata ([X.
All of the Caudata collected would be found where temporary breeding ponds are surrounded by appropriate forested adult habitat.
During the summer of 2002, species of Caudata were surveyed within the five forest communities within Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in Otto, NC.
Genome analysis in wheat-rye-Aegilops caudata trigeneric hybrids.
I found that predation by starfish, Astepias forbesi, and oyster drills, Urosalpinx cinerea and Eupleura caudata, during the warmer months and smothering by silt in early April caused most mortality.
Ecological studies on the oyster drill, Urosalpinx cinerea, in Delaware Bay, with notes on the associated drill, Eupleura caudata and with practical consideration of control methods.
The host list for Glypthelmins quieta includes five genera of anurans, Acris, Bufo, Hyla, Pseudacris and Rana; for Huematoloechus ion giplexus, two genera, Bufo and Rana; for Megalodiscus temperatus, four genera of anurans, Bufo, Hyla, Pseudacris, and Rana, five genera of Caudata, Ambystoma, Amphiuma, Desmognathus, Notophthalmus and Pseudotriton, and one genus of Serpentes, Coluber (Parker 1941; Catalano et al.