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a. a ground for legal action; matter giving rise to a lawsuit
b. the lawsuit itself
2. (in the philosophy of Aristotle) any of four requirements for a thing's coming to be, namely material (material cause), its nature (formal cause), an agent (efficient cause), and a purpose (final cause)


any immediate, or more indirect, factor precipitating an outcome. See also CAUSALITY AND CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP.



a phenomenon that directly determines or gives rise to another phenomenon, the effect. In the real world all phenomena and processes are in a state of universal connection and interaction. The concept of “cause” presupposes the singling out of a particular group of phenomena or a system, within the framework of which a causal relation is established between particular phenomena and processes.

Every phenomenon is grounded in several others and is determined by them, its causes. In the process of cognition the researcher inevitably goes beyond the mere description of facts and turns to an investigation of the laws of their origin, development, and functioning, seeking the causes that determine the corresponding properties of a particular object. The movement of thought from description to causal explanation is the movement of cognition from outer to inner, from phenomenon to essence.

As the basis and essence of the effect, the cause functions as the originating and determining element in the relationship between phenomena. The interconnection and mutual conditioning of phenomena take an innumerable variety of forms. Accordingly, the types of causes are extremely diverse. In modern science causes are classified by the most varied criteria. Thus, depending on the nature of the causal relations, causes are classified as ideal and material, informational and energetic (energeticheskie), dynamic and statistical, simple and compound, single-factor and multiple-factor, systemic and nonsystemic, external and internal, primary and nonprimary, objective and subjective, and so on.

It is customary to distinguish the cause from the circumstances of its operation. In the social sciences, causes are distinguished from reasons—the processes contributing to the formation and manifestation of causes. Consideration of the diversity of phenomena gives rise to the conception of causality as a fundamental feature of reality.



Actions, omissions, events, conditions, or a combination thereof, which led to the accident or incident investigation (ICAO).
References in periodicals archive ?
17) Implied causes of action were used frequently by the Warren Court and continued to be favored during the years immediately following Chief
313; 2) who is a viable defendant under either statutory cause of action; and 3) what are "damages" under the two statutory causes of action and, in particular, is direct injury to property required?
56) Others, employing the seemingly more expansive inquiry permitted under Guggenheimer, give greater scrutiny to the plaintiffs causes of action in light of the affidavits and are more willing to dismiss claims of questionable merit.
The appellate court distinguished the four causes of action from the two that the statute authorized expressly.
When the Thompsons alleged "that the defendant's single wrongful act invaded two different primary rights, they stated two causes of action.
Most courts denying the causes of action have ultimately concluded that recognition of such claims is best left to the legislature.
These rulings eliminate these causes of action from the case.
Holwell clarifies a decision the court entered two months earlier establishing that Texas law requires issuers of directors & officers (D&O) liability policies to advance defense costs incurred in connection with covered and non-covered causes of action interposed in the same lawsuit.
313(3) creates a private cause of action imposing liability without proof that the defendant caused the pollution, or merely modifies existing common law causes of action, which require proof of causation.
Boyle noted that despite the court's ruling, future cases like Draper's will be limited by a medical malpractice "reform" law recently passed in New Jersey, which requires such causes of action to be brought before a child's 13th birthday.
A prisoner moved to amend his [section] 1983 complaint to add additional defendants and to add two causes of action pertaining to his conditions of confinement.
RFI is also considering dismissing three of the five causes of action against the city, Souza said.