caving

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Related to Cave exploration: spelunk, Cavers

caving

the sport of climbing in and exploring caves

Caving

 

(in mining), natural or artificially induced disruption of the stability of a rock mass. In underground mining, caving takes place as the collapse of blocks and pieces of rock into mine workings, detachment of sections of the roof rock, or shifting of an entire undermined rock stratum. Natural caving over a large area (roof sagging) is caused by dynamic loading on the mine workings and by air shocks within them. The harmful consequences of caving are prevented or minimized by the installation of supports in the workings and by controlling the behavior of the wall rock. An efficient and economical method of controlling rock pressure in long stoping faces (longwalls) is complete or partial roof caving.

The parameters of roof caving—the rate of caving of the immediate roof, which is brought about by the removal or shifting of the supports, and the rate of caving of the main roof—are determined by the properties of the rock, the depth, and the engineering and technological conditions of the operations. In the case of strong roof rocks that tend to overhang, artificially induced caving by means of explosives, hydraulic working of the rock mass, and other methods must be used. In underground mining of ore deposits, the principle of caving ores and surrounding rock in certain mining systems is the basis of mineral extraction technology. The principles governing rock caving in underground mining are studied for the purpose of designing mining systems and improving methods for the design of support and regulations for the protection of excavations and above-ground structures. In open-pit mining, the banks and rims of quarries are caved. They are made stable by the choice of the proper height and slope angle of the banks and rims, and also by anchoring the slopes, taking into account the structure, physicochemical properties, and loading. Under favorable conditions, self-caving of banks is used for separating rock from the rock mass.

V. V. ZHUKOV

caving

[′kāv·iŋ]
(mining engineering)
A mining procedure, used when the surface is expendable, in which the ore body is undercut and allowed to fall, breaking into small pieces that are recovered by passages (drifts) driven for that purpose; sublevel caving, block caving, and top slicing are examples.
(petroleum engineering)
Collapsing of the walls of a wellbore. Also known as sloughing.
References in periodicals archive ?
Before having a family I participated in cave exploration expeditions on various continents, including underwater cave exploration.
So he really needs his wits about him tonight when Tony's surprise weekend turns out to involve a spot of cave exploration.
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But if you're happy to ditch room service for adventure - although maybe not quite up to Gurkha standards - you can tramp through the jungle, climb a 13,400ft mountain, or indulge in white water rafting, cave exploration and various watersports.
Armando Salinas, the country's assistant Interior Secretary, claimed they did not say they were undertaking a cave exploration expedition, for which they would have needed a different visa, or that they were military personnel.
Assistant Interior Secretary Armando Salinas maintained they had not said they were undertaking a cave exploration, for which they would have needed a different visa, or that they were military personnel.
Salinas said: "It's because they didn't say it was a cave exploration expedition, because they didn't say they were military personnel .
Pass the leisure hours with mountain hiking, cave exploration, scuba diving, deep-sea fishing, windsurfing, golf, tennis--and there's a year-round tropical climate to enjoy them in.
Fringed by more than 300 kilometres of pristine beaches, the islands afford limitless opportunities for swimming, canoeing, kayaking, horseback riding, biking, hiking, bird-watching and cave exploration by land or sea.
My dear Darwin -- The Borneo Cave exploration is to go on at present without a subscription.
The men are members of the Birmingham Cave and Crag Society and the South Wales Caving Club and both experts in cave exploration.
Highlights include sea cave exploration by raft, windsurfing, scuba diving, outrigger canoeing and helicopter flying.