Certhia


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Certhia

 

a genus of birds of the family Certhiidae. The body is 13–15.5 cm long. The birds are grayish brown and spotted above and white below. The claws are strong. The tail feathers are stiff and have sharp tips. The tails serve as a brace for the bird as it climbs tree trunks in search of food, which consists of insects and spiders. There are five species, distributed in the forests of Europe, Asia (south to the Himalayas), northwestern Africa, and America (from Alaska to Nicaragua). The USSR has three species: the tree creeper (C. familiaris), the short-toed creeper (C. brachydactyla), and the Himalayan creeper (C. himalayand). The birds nest behind pieces of loose bark or in cracks in tree trunks. A clutch contains four to seven eggs. The eggs usually are hatched in 14 or 15 days, only by the female. The birds migrate in the winter.

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atrothorax Willisornis poecilinotus Conopophagidae (1) Conopophaga aurita Dendrocolaptidae (6) Dendrocincla merula Glyphorynchus spirurus Dendrexetastes rufigula Dendrocolaptes certhia Xiphorhynchus guttatus X.
Edwards (1760:219) illustrated the specimen and assigned the phrase name, Certhia pinus to the species; he also referred to Catesby using the common name "The Pine-Creeper.
Thus, the Linnaean name Certhia pinus is a composite of two species and its modern application must depend upon a subsequent reviser to decide to which of the two species the name pinus should apply, in effect, to designate a lectotype.
Latham (1790:537), followed by Vieillot (1807, Volume 2:44), applied the name Sylvia pinus to both the Pine Warbler and the Blue-winged Warbler, as he unequivocally based his name on Linnaeus's Certhia pinus.
Bonaparte then unequivocally cited Linnaeus's Certhia pinus in synonymy, noting that while the Catesby figure "though very bad," it was indeed S.
Whereas it might be argued that Wilson's actions, describing Sylvia solitaria and accepting Latham's Sylvia pinus, without a direct reference to Linnaeus, were not sufficient for an effective lectotypification of Certhia pinus on the Catesby illustration, there is no question that Bonaparte lectotypified C.
Baird (1858:254, 277), in the combination Helminthophaga pinus, was the first to use pinus exclusively for the Blue-winged Warbler, stating (page 254) that "this species is unquestionably Certhia pinus of Linnaeus.
Stone (1921:280), directly contrary to Stejneger, argued that because Wilson nowhere "mentions Certhia pinus Linn.
stictolaema Olivaceous Woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Glyphorynchus spirurus Strong-billed Woodcreeper Xiphocolaptes promeropirhyn- chus Amazonian Barred Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes certhia Ocellated Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus ocellatus Striped Woodcreeper X.