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Folk beliefs assign St. Nicholas the role of Christmas gift bringer in Czechoslovakia. According to Czechoslovakian folklore, two oddly matched companions aid the good saint in his labors. On December sixth, St. Nicholas's Day, Nicholas descends from heaven on a golden rope accompanied by an angel dressed in white and a demon known as a cert. The cert wears black clothing and carries a whip and chain. He frightens naughty children, reminding them of the punishment in store for them if they don't mend their ways. (See also Black Peter.)

Further Reading

Del Re, Gerard, and Patricia Del Re. The Christmas Almanack. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1979. Foley, Daniel J. Christmas the World Over. Philadelphia, Pa.: Chilton Books, 1963. Stevens, Patricia Bunning. Merry Christmas!: A History of the Holiday. New York: Macmillan, 1979.


(1) (cert) See digital certificate.

(2) (Computer Emergency Response Team) A group of people in an organization who coordinate their response to breaches of security or other computer emergencies such as breakdowns and disasters. Other similar terms are CSIRT (Computer Security Incident Response Team), CIRT (Computer Incident Response Team) and IRT (Incident Response Team). CERT often refers to the CERT center at Carnegie Mellon University (see CERT/CC).

Countries also develop their own CERT agencies for national security (see US-CERT). See oCERT and vulnerability disclosure.
References in periodicals archive ?
In particular, the general guidance regarding which collateral transaction-related costs will be treated as part of the CERT costs, and how to incorporate the principles of Sec.
This regulatory package also elevates the importance of planning for application of the CERT rules.
P was involved in a CERT in 2002, because it made an excess distribution to its shareholders.
172(h)(2) is the lesser of (1) the interest expense allocable to the CERT ($2 million) or (2) the excess of 2002 interest expense ($5 million) over average interest expense for the prior three years ($3 million), or $2 million.
Note: There is no requirement to allocate CERT-year taxable income between pre--and post-CERT dates; any CERILs generated in a subsequent LLY may be carried back to the CERT year in full, regardless of any taxable income generated before the CERT.
This illustrates how the CERT rules can unexpectantly taint an NOL.