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Milstein, César,1927–2002, Anglo-Argentine immunologist, Ph.D. Cambridge, 1960. He worked (1961–63) at the National Institute of Microbiology, Buenos Aires, but following a military coup he resigned and returned to Cambridge, where he joined the staff of the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, serving as its deputy director from 1988 to 1995, when he retired. In 1975, with Georges KöhlerKöhler, Georges Jean Franz
, 1946–95, German immunologist, Ph.D. Univ. of Freiburg, 1974. He worked (1974–76) with César Milstein at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England.
..... Click the link for more information. , he developed the hybridoma technique for producing monoclonal antibodiesmonoclonal antibody,
an antibody that is mass produced in the laboratory from a single clone and that recognizes only one antigen. Monoclonal antibodies are typically made by fusing a normally short-lived, antibody-producing B cell (see immunity) to a fast-growing cell, such as
..... Click the link for more information. , pure, mass-produced antibodies that recognize only one antigen (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
..... Click the link for more information. ). Their method for monoclonal antibody production has since been adopted universally, and such antibodies are used in laboratory research, in medical diagnostics, and in medical treatments to neutralize bacterial toxins. In 1984, Milstein (with Köhler and Niels K. JerneJerne, Niels Kai
, 1911–94, British-Danish immunologist, b. London. He worked at the Danish State Serum Institute (1945–55) and was chief medical officer to the World Health Organization (1956–62).
..... Click the link for more information. ) shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.