Cesare Lombroso


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Lombroso, Cesare

(chĕ`zärā lōmbrô`zō), 1835–1909, Italian criminologist and physician. In 1876 he published a pamphlet setting forth his theory of the origin of criminal traits. In the study, later enlarged into the famous L'uomo delinquente (5th ed., 3 vol., 1896–97; partial tr. as Criminal Man, 1911), he compared anthropological measurements and developed the concept of the atavistic, or born, criminal. In his later works, less importance was given to that concept. Although the scientific validity of the concept has been questioned by other criminologists, Lombroso is still credited with turning attention from the legalistic study of crime to the scientific study of the criminal. Lombroso advocated humane treatment of criminals and limitations on the use of the death penalty.

Bibliography

See biography by H. G. Kurella (tr. 1911).

Lombroso, Cesare

 

Born Nov. 6, 1835, in Verona; died Oct. 9, 1909, in Turin, Italy. Italian forensic psychiatrist and anthropologist; founder of the anthropological trend in bourgeois criminology and criminal law.

Lombroso graduated from a university in Pavia in 1858 and was appointed a professor there in 1862. Beginning in 1896 he was a professor at the University of Turin. Lombroso considered crime to be a natural phenomenon like birth or death. He developed the theory of innate criminality according to which individuals are born criminals, not made criminals. He worked out a system of characteristics of the “innate criminal,” which supposedly indicates whether the individual in question is capable of becoming a criminal or not. The physical features (stigmata) that according to Lombroso characterize a criminal include a flattened nose, sparse beard, and low forehead, all characteristics of “a primitive man or an animal.” In his early works he attached great importance to the biopsychological factors of criminality, but in his later works he came to recognize the importance of the sociological causes of criminality. On this basis, his theory is a biosociological one. Although the very first testing of Lombroso’s theory proved its scientific unsoundness, the theory nevertheless long retained a leading role in bourgeois criminology.

WORKS

L’uomo delinquente, vols. 1-3, 5th ed. Turin, 1896-97.
In Russian translation:
Noveishie uspekhi nauki o prestupnike. St. Petersburg, 1892.

REFERENCE

Reshetnikov F. F. Ugolovnoe pravo burzhuaznykh stran. Moscow, 1966.
References in periodicals archive ?
A traves del periodo en estudio hemos querido exponer como las ideas centrales de este nuevo saber criminologico que fue la antropologia criminal o positivista, cuyo inspirador fue el italiano Cesare Lombroso, tuvo recepcion temprana en Chile, tanto en su version mas especializada, y ligada al mundo judicial y delictivo, como en aquella de caracter "profano" o divulgativa, vinculada a la prensa y a los escritos de algunos publicistas que asimilaron el determinismo biologico y la apariencia fisica para construir y caracterizar al criminal contemporaneo.
2006) (1876); Devroye, supra note 23, at 12-19 (discussing influential publication in United States of the works of Cesare Lombroso and Enrico Ferri); Solomon J.
Notizie su Argon: Gli antenati di Primo Levi, Francesco Petrarca e Cesare Lombroso.
In Criminal Woman, the Prostitute, and the Normal Woman, by Cesare Lombroso and Guglielmo Ferrero.
Informe sobre posibles ancestros del Partido Accion Nacional en su nueva etapa de racismo electoral: Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) le da a la tecnica del vistazo la categoria de un enfoque antropobiologico.
En su analisis, Dabove demuestra la atraccion que los teoricos latinoamericanos tuvieron por los estudios de Cesare Lombroso y su fracaso en el momento de intentar aplicar las teorias del criminologo italiano a los criminales de sus respectivos paises.
Naturalmente l'indagine sulle strategie testuali conduce anche all'approfondimento di alcune strategie disciplinari esercitate dal potere, come quella che riguarda il vittimismo femminile identificato nel problema dell'infanticidio e della criminalita, cui sono dedicate le riflessioni sulla maternita come fatto sociale (Capitolo V) e sull'atavismo delinquenziale di Cesare Lombroso (Capitolo VI).
The first three names on Nekhliudov's list--the Italian psychiatrist Cesare Lombroso, the magistrate and prosecutor Baron Raffael Garofalo, and the lawyer Enrico Ferri--represent the Italian School of Criminal Anthropology.
Es muy probable que la relacion que establece Loos entre el ornamento y la criminalidad este inspirada en los textos del famoso criminologo italiano Cesare Lombroso, quien sostiene que tanto el sistema nervioso como la constitucion corporal de los criminales de nacimiento se parece a la de los salvajes; lo que explica su predileccion por los tatuajes y su tendencia a decorar todo su cuerpo (Cernuschi 2000, p.
Henry Fuseli, born Johann Heinrich Fussli (1741--1825); Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829--69), and Cesare Lombroso (1835--1909) remain of constant interest to specialists; among the broader public, detailed recall is not likely.
Exploration of this scientific approach to literature will also help to redress the omission: the very existence of this trend bears witness to engagement with its foreign cynosures, Cesare Lombroso and Max Nordau, the impact of whose work was sufficiently significant to engender indigenous exponents: Pompeyo Gener and Jose Maria Llanas Aguilaniedo.
Cesare LOMBROSO et Guglielmo FERRERO, Criminal Woman, the Prostitute, and the Normal Woman.