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Caesarean, Caesarian (US), Cesarean, Cesarian
an operation for artificial delivery of a fetus in which the fetus and placenta are removed through an incision in the anterior abdominal wall and the body of the uterus.
A cesarean is performed on a live fetus when the woman is unable without assistance to bear the child alive (when the pelvis is narrow or deformed or in the presence of severe cicatricial changes of the vagina or placenta praevia). When there is excessive or acute hemorrhage, a cesarean is performed even on a dead or nonviable fetus in order to save the mother. The term “cesarean” formerly was incorrectly associated with the legend of the birth of the Roman dictator Gaius Julius Caesar by means of a similar operation.