Céspedes, Carlos Manuel de

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Céspedes, Carlos Manuel de

(kär`lōs mänwĕl` dā sā`spāthās), 1819–74, Cuban revolutionist. He completed his education in Spain and there took part (1843) in a revolution led by Juan Prim. On returning (1868) to Cuba he began the revolt by proclaiming the demands of Cuban liberals. The Ten Years WarTen Years War,
1868–78, struggle for Cuban independence from Spain. Discontent was caused in Cuba by excessive taxation, trade restrictions, and virtual exclusion of native Cubans from governmental posts.
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 followed. He was elected president by the revolutionists (1869), but other leaders, notably Ignacio Agramonte, disagreed with him; discontent increased, and he was deposed (1873). He was killed in 1874, probably by Spanish soldiers.

Céspedes, Carlos Manuel de,

1871–1939, president of Cuba (1933), b. New York City; son of Carlos Manuel de Céspedes (1819–74). He actively participated in the Revolution of 1895 and the Spanish-American War. When Gerardo MachadoMachado, Gerardo
, 1871–1939, president of Cuba (1925–33). A businessman turned presidential candidate in 1924, he channeled the resurgent nationalism of the era. His victory over Menocal in the 1924 election, was aided by President Zayas.
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 was overthrown in Aug., 1933, Céspedes became provisional president, but was forced to resign after a coup (Sept. 5) by a student junta supporting Ramón Grau San MartínGrau San Martín, Ramón
, 1887–1969, president of Cuba (1933–34, 1944–48). Professor of medicine at the Univ. of Havana, Grau San Martín opposed Gerardo Machado.
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.

Céspedes, Carlos Manuel de

 

Born Apr. 18, 1819, in Bayamo; died Feb. 27, 1874, in San Lorenzo. A leader in Cuba’s Ten Years’ War (1868–78), against the Spanish colonialists.

The son of a well-to-do planter, Céspedes studied in Havana and at the universities of Barcelona and Madrid. After freeing his own slaves, he called on them to take part in the liberation struggle. In October 1868 he assumed command of the army of liberation and promulgated the manifesto “A Call From Yara,” which declared Cuba independent. In 1869 he helped draft the first Cuban constitution. In 1874 he was taken prisoner by the Spanish and executed. A great Cuban patriot, Céspedes is known as the father of his country.