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Chester,city (1991 pop. 80,154), Cheshire West and Chester, W central England, on a sandstone height above the Dee River. It is a railroad junction. Manufactures include electrical equipment, paint, and window panes. Tourism is also important. Chester has a long military history, and it was a significant port for centuries. Under the name Castra Devana or Deva, it was the headquarters of the Roman 20th legion. The area was ravaged by Æthelfrith of Northumbria in the 7th cent. and the Danes in the 9th cent. Æthelflæd of Mercia fortified Chester again in the 10th cent. William I took it in 1070 and the following year granted it to his nephew, Hugh Lupus, as a palatine earldom. Chester served the English crown as a defensive bastion and was used as a base for operations against Wales from 1275 to 1284. During the English civil warEnglish civil war,
1642–48, the conflict between King Charles I of England and a large body of his subjects, generally called the "parliamentarians," that culminated in the defeat and execution of the king and the establishment of a republican commonwealth.
..... Click the link for more information. , parliamentarians took Chester by siege in 1646. Its role as a port peaked from c.1350 to 1450; silting and the rise of LiverpoolLiverpool,
city and metropolitan borough (1991 pop. 448,300), NW England, on the Mersey River near its mouth. It is one of Britain's largest cities. A large center for food processing (especially flour and sugar), Liverpool has a variety of industries, including the manufacture
..... Click the link for more information. contributed to the decline of port trade by the late 18th cent. Chester remains medieval in appearance and is the only city in England that possesses its entire original wall. Notable features are this red sandstone wall, with a walk along the top; Agricola's Tower; 15th- and 16th-century timbered houses; the cathedral, with architecture of styles from Norman to Late Perpendicular; the Roodee, on which races have been held since 1540; St. John's Church; Grosvenor Museum; and "The King's School," a public school founded by Henry VIII in 1541. Characteristic of Chester are the Rows, a double tier of shops formed by projecting the second stories of the buildings along the main streets. The Chester Plays (see miracle playmiracle play
or mystery play,
form of medieval drama that came from dramatization of the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church. It developed from the 10th to the 16th cent., reaching its height in the 15th cent.
..... Click the link for more information. ) originated in the town.
Chester,city (1990 pop. 41,856), Delaware co., SE Pa., on the Delaware River south of Philadelphia; settled c.1644 by Swedes, inc. as a city 1866. A port, it was also long a shipbuilding center. There are ship transfer facilities and factories making metal, food, and paper products; marine anchors; machinery; communications equipment; and consumer goods. A gambling casino and racetrack also contribute to the city's economy, The Commodore Barry Bridge, with one of the world's longest cantilever main spans, crosses the Delaware to Bridgeport, N.J.
The oldest city in the state, Chester (established as Upland) was the site of William PennPenn, William,
1644–1718, English Quaker, founder of Pennsylvania, b. London, England; son of Sir William Penn. Early Life
He was expelled (1662) from Oxford for his religious nonconformity and was then sent by his father to the Continent to overcome his
..... Click the link for more information. 's first landing (1682) in America. Penn renamed the settlement and convened (1682) the first assembly of the colony there. Foundations of the original settlement remain, in Governor Printz Park. Chester is home to Widener Univ. (1821).
a city in Great Britain; seat of the county of Cheshire. Population, 117,300 (1974). Chester is a commercial center on the Dee River and a transportation junction. Local industry includes machine building and metalworking.
a city in the eastern USA, in the state of Pennsylvania, on the Delaware River; a southwestern suburb of Philadelphia. Population, 52,000 (1975). Chester, which was founded in 1644, has an iron and steel industry and enterprises of the metalworking, machine-building, oil-refining, and chemical industries. Equipment for power engineering and heavy industry is produced. There are shipyards and automotive assembly plants in Chester.