Ch'in


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Ch'in

(chĭn), dynasty of China, which ruled from 221 B.C. to 206 B.C. The word China is derived from Ch'in, the first dynasty to unify the country by conquering the warring feudal states of the late ChouChou
, dynasty of China, which ruled from c.1027 B.C. to 256 B.C. The pastoral Chou people migrated from the Wei valley NW of the Huang He c.1027 B.C. and overthrew the Shang dynasty. The Chou built their capital near modern Xi'an in 1027 B.C. and moved it to Luoyang in 770 B.C.
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 period. King Cheng took the title Shih Huang-ti or Shi Huangdi [first august emperor] in 221 B.C. and began to consolidate the new empire. In matters of state he was counseled by Li Ssu (d. 208 B.C.), a scholar of the Legalist school of philosophy, which emphasized the need for strict laws in social and political relations and for obedience to state authority. Under Shih Huang-ti, Ch'in extended the empire W to Guizhou, N to Gansu, and S to Tonkin in what is now Vietnam, and made the capital Xianyang (near modern Xi'an, Shaanxi prov.) the most splendid city of China; it is speculated that much of the Great WallGreat Wall of China,
series of fortifications, c.3,890 mi (6,260 km) long (not including trenches and natural defensive barriers), winding across N China from Gansu prov. to Liaoning prov.
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 was built during his reign. To govern the vast empire, Ch'in abolished feudalism, instituted a centralized government that was the model for later unifying dynasties, established uniform laws, weights, and measures, standardized the written language, and built a network of roads and canals that converged on the capital. Ch'in Shih Huang-ti has been regarded as a brutal autocrat by many since he is said to have imposed harsh laws, levied heavy taxes, tolerated no criticism, and burned all books except the useful ones on medicine and agriculture. Shih Huang-ti died in 210 B.C. and was succeeded by a weakling son. Overburdened peasants revolted and overthrew the Ch'in dynasty in 206 B.C. Soon after, the HanHan
, dynasty of China that ruled from 202 B.C. to A.D. 220. Liu Pang, the first Han emperor, had been a farmer, minor village official, and guerrilla fighter under the Ch'in dynasty.
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 dynasty came to power in China.

Bibliography

See D. Bodde, China's First Unifier (1938, repr. 1967); D. Twitchett and M. Loewe, ed., The Cambridge History of China (Vol. 1, 1986).

References in periodicals archive ?
An effective leader would use Ch'in to guide his decisions pertaining to human interactions and business dealings.
HULSEWE, REMNANTS OF CH'IN LAW (1985); Yuan Yuan Shen, Conceptions and Receptions of Legality: Understanding the Complexity of Law Reform in Modern China, in LIMITS, supra note 2; Karen Turner, War, Punishment, and The Law of Nature in Early Chinese Concepts of The State, 53 HARV.
Among the most important conceptual reference points in the classicist tradition of understanding everything in terms of ancient precedents and analogies were the tumultuous events leading up to the first great unification of China by the Ch'in (Qin) dynasty in 221 BCE.
honorable, intellectual and manual work by both the men of the ruling class and peasant-soldiers, and ch'in, i.
Likewise, Aletto takes advantage of a pre-existing streak of pride in the Norwegian prince Gernando: "'l maligno spirito d'Averno, ch'in lui strada si larga aprir si vede / tacito in sen gli serpe ed al governo / de' suoi pensieri lusingando siede" (V 18) (the wicked spirit of Avernus, which sees so broad a highway opened in him, silently glides within his breast and deceitfully gains the governing seat of his thoughts).
Lo primo tuo refugio e 'l primo ostello sara la cortesia del gran Lombardo che 'n su la scala porta il santo uccello; ch'in te avra si benigno riguardo, che del fare e del chieder, tra voi due, fia primo quel che tra li altri e piu tardo.
3: Qin dao chan yun [Qin Meditational Airs], CRCD 703 [Shanghai: Xueding, 1995]), and another transcription of his interpretation of Jiukuang is published in the Guqin qu ji (Ku ch'in ch'u chi [Guqin Collected Edition], 2 vols.
He also contrasts the steadiness of male attire with the oscillating styles of women and the laws required "to restrain such unbridled will": 'E nel vero ch'in tutte l'eta si ha conceduto alle donne assai piu licentia nelle maniere dell'adornarsi ch'a gli huomini: & certo non senza ragione: percioch'egli e convenevol ch'elle accompagnino la leggiadria della lor vaga bellezza: con l'eleganza de leggiadri & de ricchi panni.
484-221 BC), which culminated in the absolute victory of one state, Ch'in, whose King became the First Emperor and ordered the burning of all useless books and the execution of anyone who |appealed to the past to condemn the present'.
For example, "the Shuo wen postface clearly contrasts ku wen script (dated to the pre-Ch'in period) with the small and large seal script types sponsored by Ch'in .
Bembo, a la morte tua dir si poria c'ha perduto San Marco il suo tesoro, e Roma quell'onore in concistoro, ch'in mill'anni mai piu non trovaria.
ti prego per quel celeste lume dell'ideale bellezza ch'in te risplende, per quelle dolcissime tue luci, che sono nel cielo del tuo bel volto l'oriente di due Soli amorosi, che tu riceva nell'orecchie invisibili dell'anima tua queste voci, testimoni addolorati delle mie sciagure, e della tua perfidia.