Among its main achievements, the mission brought to light the rich Chalcolithic
past of the region, filling a gap in our knowledge of the ancient population and economy of southern Pakistan.
Whilst digging on the site they found objects from as early as the Neolithic period such as obsidian, tools and stone grinders that are earlier than the Chalcolithic
era, but no remains of this period have been preserved due to the continued habitation on top.
Thornton (2009) correctly characterised production strategies in this region as distinct from those of highland Anatolia and Iran; in the southern Levant Thornton describes the well-known shift from site-centred smelting and melting in the Chalcolithic
and Early Bronze Age I (c.
A prosperous settlement known as the Chalcolithic
Samarran Culture flourished between c.
The researchers selected well-preserved shells for isotopic analysis from the early to late Holocene layers, covering the Mesolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic
and Bronze Age periods.
Extensive occupation of Inner Paphlagonia began in the Early Bronze Age; survey yielded very little evidence from the Paleolithic period (Lower and Middle Paleolithic), virtually no evidence of Neolithic occupation, and scant evidence from the Chalcolithic
Although Akmam concentrates principally on the historical period from the 3rd century BCE until the mid-13th century, she provides an adequate account of the pre-and proto-historic background after a brief description of the geographical setting as well as the growth of settlements in the historical period in the context of the Chalcolithic
Such elements present in legends and beliefs as the birth of fire, melting the mountains and ploughing fields and domesticating animals represent the discovery of fire by man during the Ice Age, the transition into the Chalcolithic
Age and the entry into the Neolithic Age respectively.
Some time in the Chalcolithic
, or Copper Age, people living in the area where Al-Jouf is today laboriously erected 54 groups of rudely trimmed stone pillars.
During the Chalcolithic
period, complex tombs and graves were not found.
Material recovered from these trenches contributes greatly to our understanding of the three most robust phases of activity on the island: the Early Chalcolithic
The winning coin is the common 2 euro circulation coin which depicts a cross shaped idol dating back to the chalcolithic
period (3000 BC).