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Semitic stock-raising tribes who settled in the outlying regions of Babylonia, on the northwestern coast of the Persian Gulf, in the first half of the first millennium B.C.

The Chaldeans were probably of Aramean origin; however, there is some evidence to suggest that they originated in southern Arabia. What language the Chaldeans spoke is open to dispute, since the aristocracy rapidly assimilated with the Babylonians and bore Accadian names. Moreover, there are no written texts that can be positively identified as Chaldean. In the Bible and in post-biblical tradition, a Baby Ionian-Aramaic dialect is referred to as the Chaldean language.

The Chaldeans who settled in the southern part of Mesopotamia gradually adopted a settled way of life and formed a series of principalities, such as Bit-Yakin. Most of these principalities were named after their founders. Beginning in the ninth century B.C., the Chaldeans and Elam fought Assyria for control of Babylon. In the second half of the eighth century and in the early seventh century, Chaldean princes managed to seize the Babylonian throne a number of times. Each time, however, the Chaldeans were driven out by the Assyrians. From 626 B.C. to 538 B.C. the Chaldean dynasty ruled Babylon. This dynasty, which included Nabopolassar and Nebuchadnezzar II, established the New Babylonian Empire.

In ancient Greece and Rome, priests and fortune-tellers of Babylonian origin were called Chaldeans. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the term “Chaldeans” was erroneously applied to the Sumerians.

References in periodicals archive ?
We are a community with deep roots and a rich history," said Francis Boji, chairman of the Chaldean Cultural Center Board.
9:7) refers to the place of Abraham's birth as Ur Kasdim, literally "Ur of the Chaldeans.
Although President Rohani had promised better treatment of the countries' minorities, Bet-Kelia criticized the actions of the government toward his community, describing what he called discrimination and legal restrictions on Assyrian and Chaldean Christians as well as other religious minorities.
BEIRUT: Lebanon's current political deadlock and unstable security situation are negatively impacting the situation of Iraqi refugees, Chaldean Bishop Michel Kassarji of Lebanon said Wednesday, calling for more help to the community.
Caption: In August 2014, more than 120,000 Chaldean Christians fled Qaraqosh, Iraq's largest Christian city, as the murderous forces of the Islamic State advanced.
We wish our Assyrian, Chaldean and Syriac sisters and brothers a peaceful and happy feast and hope they celebrate their next feast with joy and happiness in their own homes
Arameans, Chaldeans, and Arabs in Babylonia and Palestine in the First Millennium B.
The Catholic Chaldeans are the largest among the Christian minorities in Iraq and Syria.
The research sample itself consists of sixty-six members of Melbourne's 5,000 strong Chaldean and Assyrian communities and the paper's focus is on informants' use of interpreting services (both professional and lay) and informants' provision of services as lay interpreters.
Louis and the Chaldean Catholic Church in Aleppo on Saturday, Hassoun reviewed the sublime meanings of the Christmas Day, calling for spreading amity among the people.
The synod of bishops of the Chaldean Catholic Church elected Father Emil Shimoun Nona, of the Archdiocese of Alqosh, to succeed Archbishop official Rahho.
In his homily yesterday, Chaldean Cardinal Emmanuel III Delly praised the establishment of Christmas as an official holiday as a step towards easing tensions.