Chancellor

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chancellor

1. the head of the government in several European countries
2. US the president of a university or, in some colleges, the chief administrative officer
3. Brit and Canadian the honorary head of a university
4. US (in some states) the presiding judge of a court of chancery or equity
5. Brit the chief secretary of an embassy
6. Christianity a clergyman acting as the law officer of a bishop
7. Archaic the chief secretary of a prince, nobleman, etc.

Chancellor

 

(Russian, kantsler; from German Kanzler).

(1) In the feudal states of medieval Europe, the highest official, whose duties included directing the royal chancellery and archive and keeping the state seal.

(2) In tsarist Russia, state chancellor (gosudarstvennyi kantsler) was the highest civil rank. According to the table of ranks of 1722, it corresponded to the military rank of field marshal (general-feVdmarshal).

(3) In Germany from 1871 to 1945, the Reichskanzler was the head of the government; from 1934 he also exercised the powers of head of state.

(4) In the Federal Republic of Germany and in Austria, the federal chancellor is the head of the government.

(5) In Great Britain, the chancellor of the exchequer is the minister of finance; the lord high chancellor is the chairman of the House of Lords.

(6) In Switzerland, the chancellor of the Federation is the leader in the secretariat to the highest federal executive and administrative bodies (Federal Council and Federal Assembly).


Chancellor

 

(Reichskanzler). (1) In the German Empire from 1871 to 1918, the sole minister of all of Germany and chairman of the Bundesrat. Appointed by the emperor, the chancellor was the executive head of the empire.

(2) In the Weimar Republic of 1919–33, the head of government, appointed by the president with the approval of the Reichstag. In 1933 so-called presidential cabinets were created, which in circumvention of the constitution did not rely on the confidence of the parliament. From 1933 to 1945, Hitler was chancellor, and in 1934 he consolidated the powers of the head of government and state, abolishing the office of president.

References in classic literature ?
Michaelmas term lately over, and the Lord Chancellor sitting in Lincoln's Inn Hall.
What can the chancellor have to say to me that your Majesty could not say yourself?
The Chancellor Sequier, who twenty years previously had persecuted her so ruthlessly, stood before her, relating how his carriage had been smashed, how he had been pursued and had rushed into the Hotel d'O , that the hotel was immediately invaded, pillaged and devastated; happily he had time to reach a closet hidden behind tapestry, in which he was secreted by an old woman, together with his brother, the Bishop of Meaux.
All this I saw from the open window of the Warden's breakfast-saloon, looking across the shoulder of the Lord Chancellor, who had sprung to his feet the moment the shouting began, almost as if he had been expecting it, and had rushed to the window which commanded the best view of the market-place.
For his errand at Torwood Park was a political one; it was the place of appointment named by no less a person than the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Sir Howard Horne, then introducing his so-called Socialist budget, and prepared to expound it in an interview with so promising a penman.
But the best of it was," said one, telling of the misfortune of a fellow diplomat, "that the Chancellor told him flatly that his appointment to London was a promotion and that he was so to regard it.
Bid the chancellor and the sub-chancellor lead in the brothers according to age, together with brother John, the accused, and brother Ambrose, the accuser.
He became Treasurer of the Exchequer, Speaker of the House of Commons, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and last of all Lord Chancellor of England.
These works, which I owe to the high talents and disinterested zeal of the above distinguished authors, could not have been undertaken, had it not been for the liberality of the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, who, through the representation of the Right Honourable the Chancellor of the Exchequer, have been pleased to grant a sum of one thousand pounds towards defraying part of the expenses of publication.
The advice was above the courage of both the King and the age; but Bacon was advanced through various legal offices, until in 1613 he was made Attorney-General and in 1618 (two years after Shakspere's death) Lord High Chancellor of England, at the same time being raised to the peerage as Baron Verulam.
To give a higher idea of the principle I mean, as well as one more familiar to the present age; it may be considered as sitting on its throne in the mind, like the Lord High Chancellor of this kingdom in his court; where it presides, governs, directs, judges, acquits, and condemns according to merit and justice, with a knowledge which nothing escapes, a penetration which nothing can deceive, and an integrity which nothing can corrupt.
But, as one reads in the columns of the Times newspaper every now and then, queer announcements from the Chancellor of the Exchequer, acknowledging the receipt of 50 pounds from A.

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