Great Wall of China

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China, Great Wall of:

see Great Wall of ChinaGreat Wall of China,
series of fortifications, c.3,890 mi (6,260 km) long (not including trenches and natural defensive barriers), winding across N China from Gansu prov. to Liaoning prov.
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.

Great Wall of China,

series of fortifications, c.3,890 mi (6,260 km) long (not including trenches and natural defensive barriers), winding across N China from Gansu prov. to Liaoning prov. The wall, running mostly along the southern edge of the Mongolian plain, was erected to protect China from northern nomads. It is an amalgamation of many walls built in ancient times; the first unified wall was built in the 3d cent. B.C. by the Ch'inCh'in
, dynasty of China, which ruled from 221 B.C. to 206 B.C. The word China is derived from Ch'in, the first dynasty to unify the country by conquering the warring feudal states of the late Chou period.
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 dynasty. Laborers were conscripted from all over China to build it, and many of them died during the project. The wall's present form dates substantially from the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), and wall building was particularly intense in the late Ming period. The wall averages 25 ft (7.6 m) in height and is 15 to 30 ft (4.6–9.1 m) thick at the base, sloping to 12 ft (3.7 m) at the top. Guard stations and watchtowers are placed at regular intervals. The eastern part of the wall is earth and stone faced with brick, but in the west it is merely a tamped earth mound. Successive invasions of China from the north demonstrated that the Great Wall had little military utility. The Ch'ing (Manchu) dynasty (1644–1912) did not use the wall and largely abandoned it. Since 1949 two sections N of Beijing have been reconstructed and are open to visitors.

Bibliography

See A. Waldron, The Great Wall of China (1990); J. Lovell, The Great Wall.

Great Wall of China

runs for 1,400 miles along China’s north and northwest borders. [Chin. Hist.: NCE, 538]

Great Wall of China

a defensive wall in N China, extending from W Gansu to the Gulf of Liaodong: constructed in the 3rd century bc as a defence against the Mongols; substantially rebuilt in the 15th century. Length: over 2400 km (1500 miles). Average height: 6 m (20 ft.). Average width: 6 m (20 ft.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Tabb, (1) Vladyslav Kholodovych, (2) Felix Grun (1), Changcheng Zhou, (1) William J.
office of CGWIC) Great Wall Airlines (aka Missile Proliferation: Changcheng Hangkong) Executive Order 13382 (unspecified transfers probably to Iran) -China National Electronic Weapons Proliferation: Import-Export Company [section] 3, Iran, North -CATIC Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act -Zibo Chemet Equipment Company (transfers controlled under multilateral export control lists or having the potential to make a material contribution to WMD or cruise or ballistic missiles) -CPMIEC Weapons Proliferation: -Shanghai Non-Ferrous Metals [section] 3, Iran, North Pudong Development Trade Korea, and Syria Company Ltd.
The Changcheng (Great-Wall) Station, founded in February 1985, is located south of King George Island.
office of CGWIC) Great Wall Airlines Missile August 15, 2006 (aka Changcheng Proliferation: lifted on December Hangkong) 12, 2006 Executive Order 13382 (unspecified transfers probably to Iran) --China National Weapons December 28, 2006 Electronic Proliferation: for two years Import-Export Company [section] 3, Iran, North Korea, and --CATIC Syria Nonproliferation Act --Zibo Chemet Equipment Company (unspecified transfers to Iran controlled under multilateral export control lists or having the potential to make a material contribution to WMD or cruise or ballistic missiles) --CPMIEC Weapons April 17, 2007 Proliferation: for two years --Shanghai Non-Ferrous Metals [section] 3, Iran, Pudong Development North Korea, and Trade Company Ltd.
The to-be-built Kunlun Station, also the country's third station in Antarctica after Changcheng Station and Zhongshan Station, would be located in the Dome Argus (Dome A) zone, the pole's highest icecap at 4,093 meters above sea level.
office of CGWIC) Great Wall Airlines (aka Missile Proliferation: Changcheng Hangkong) Executive Order 13382 (unspecified transfers probably to Iran) -- China National Electronic Weapons Proliferation: Import-Export Company -- CATIC [section] 3, Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act -- Zibo Chemet Equipment Company (unspecified transfers to Iran controlled under multilateral export control lists or having the potential to make a material contribution to WMD or cruise or ballistic missiles) -- CPMIEC Weapons Proliferation: -- Shanghai Non-Ferrous Metals [section] 3, Iran, North Korea, Pudong Development Trade Company and Syria Nonproliferation Act Ltd.
office of controlled by the CGWIC) MTCR) Great Wall Airlines Missile 15-Aug-2006 (aka Changcheng Proliferation: until December Hangkong) Executive Order 12, 2006 13382 (unspecified transfers probably to Iran) --China National Weapons December 28, 2006 Electronic Import-- Proliferation: Export Company --CATIC ([section]) 3, Iran for two years and Syria --Zibo Chemet Nonproliferation Act Equipment Company (unspecified transfers to Iran controlled under multilateral export control lists or having the potential to make a material contribution to WMD or cruise or ballistic missiles) --CPMIEC Weapons 17-Apr-2007 Proliferation: --Shanghai ([section]) 3, Iran for two years Non--Ferrous Metals and Syria Pudong Development Nonproliferation Act Trade Company Ltd.
office of CGWIC) Great Wall Airlines Missile Proliferation: August 15, 2006 (aka Changcheng Executive Order 13382 until December 12, Hangkong) (unspecified transfers 2006 probably to Iran) --China National Weapons Proliferation: December 28, 2006 Electronic Import- [section] 3, Iran and for two years Export Company Syria --CATIC Nonproliferation Act --Zibo Chemet (unspecified transfers Equipment Company to Iran controlled under multilateral export control lists or having the potential to make a material contribution to WMD or cruise or ballistic missiles) --CPMIEC Weapons Proliferation: April 17, 2007 --Shanghai Non-Ferrous [section] 3, Iran and for two years Metals Pudong Syria Development Trade Nonproliferation Act Company Ltd.
office of CGWIC) Great Wall Airlines (aka Missile Proliferation: Changcheng Hangkong) Executive Order 13382 (unspecified transfers probably to Iran) -China National Electronic Weapons Proliferation: Import-Export Company [section]3, Iran and Syria -CATIC Nonproliferation Act -Zibo Chemet Equipment Company (unspecified transfers to Iran controlled under multilateral export control lists or having the potential to make a material contribution to WMD or cruise or ballistic missiles) -CPMIEC Weapons Proliferation: -Shanghai Non-Ferrous Metals [section]3, Iran and Syria Pudong Development Trade Nonproliferation Act Company Ltd.
Companies and organizations analyzed or mentioned in the report include: Aisidi, Amoisonic, Beijing Zoomfight, Bird, Carrefour, CECT, CellStar, CentreYou, Century Lianhua, Changcheng Telecom, China Itell, China Mobile, China PTAC Communications Services, China Resources Vanguard Shop, China Telecom, China Unicom, China Itell, D.
office of CGWIC) Great Wall Airlines Missile Proliferation: August 15, 2006 (aka Changcheng until December Hangkong) Executive Order 13382 12, 2006 (unspecified transfers probably to Iran) --China National Weapons Proliferation: December 28, 2006 Electronic for two years Import-Export Company [section]3, Iran and Syria Nonproliferation Act --CATIC (unspecified transfers to Iran controlled under --Zibo Chemet multilateral export Equipment Company control lists or having the potential to make a material contribution to WMD or cruise or ballistic missiles) --CPMIEC Weapons Proliferation: April 17, 2007 for two years --Shanghai [section]3, Iran and Non-Ferrous Metals Syria Nonproliferation Pudong Development Act Trade Company Ltd.
office of CGWIC) Great Wall Airlines (aka Missile Proliferation: August 15, 2006 Changcheng Hangkong) Executive Order 13382 until December (unspecified transfers 12, 2006 probably to Iran) --China National Weapons Proliferation: December 28, Electronic Import-Export [section]3, Iran and 2006 for two Company Syria Nonproliferation years --CATIC Act (unspecified --Zibo Chemet Equipment transfers to Iran Company controlled under multilateral export control lists or having the potential to make a material contribution to WMD or cruise or ballistic missiles) --CPMIEC Weapons Proliferation: April 17, 2007 --Shanghai Non-Ferrous [section]3, Iran and for two years Metals Pudong Syria Nonproliferation Development Trade Act (unspecified Company Ltd.