Channel Islands

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Channel Islands,

archipelago (2005 est. pop. 156,000), 75 sq mi (194 sq km), 10 mi (16 km) off the coast of Normandy, France, in the English Channel. The main islands are JerseyJersey
, island (2005 est. pop. 90,800), 45 sq mi (117 sq km), in the English Channel, largest of the Channel Islands, which are dependencies of the British crown. It is 15 mi (24 km) from the Normandy coast of France and SE of Guernsey. Saint Helier, the capital, is on St.
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, GuernseyGuernsey
, island, 25 sq mi (65 sq km), in the English Channel, second largest of the Channel Islands. Guernsey bailiwick (2005 est. pop. 65,000) includes Alderney, Sark, Herm, Brechou, Jethou, and smaller islands.
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, AlderneyAlderney
, Fr. Aurigny , anc. Riduna, island (1991 pop. 2,297), c.3 sq mi (7.7 sq km), in the English Channel, northernmost of the larger Channel Islands. It is separated from the French coast and from the other islands by swift tidal races.
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, and SarkSark,
Fr. Sercq (sĕrk), island (1991 pop. 575), 2 sq mi (5 sq km), in the English Channel, E of Guernsey, one of the Channel Islands. It is divided into Great Sark and Little Sark, which are connected by a natural causeway, the Coupée.
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, and there are several smaller islands, including Herm, Jethou, and Lithou; all the islands are dependencies of the British crown. The inhabitants have historically been mostly of Norman descent, but on Alderney the stock is mainly English. In recent years many Britons have moved here, attracted by the favorable tax rates and the pleasant island atmosphere. Both French and English are spoken; in addition, a Norman patois and Norman customs are still maintained by many of the natives.

The mild and sunny climate (35–40 in./89–102 cm rainfall a year) and the fertile soil have made agriculture an important part of the islands' economy. Large quantities of vegetables, fruits, and flowers are shipped to English markets, but dairying is the chief agricultural occupation. The famous Jersey and Guernsey breeds of cattle are kept pure by local laws. Financial services and electronics manufacture are growing sectors of the economy, and the islands are a favorite resort of tourists and vacationers. The chief ports are St. HelierSaint Helier
, town (1991 pop. 24,941), capital of Jersey, Channel Islands, Great Britain, on St. Aubin's Bay. The administrative and cultural center of Jersey, St. Helier is also a residential town, resort, and point of export for local produce.
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 (Jersey) and St. Peter PortSaint Peter Port,
town (1991 pop. 16,100), capital of Guernsey, Channel Islands. Its shallow harbor is protected by piers; vegetables, fruits, and flowers are exported. Hauteville House, the residence of Victor Hugo from 1856 to 1870, contains memorials of the author.
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 (Guernsey). Much of the islands' capital and consumer goods, raw materials, fuels, and foodstuffs are imported.

The islands are divided into two administrative bailiwicks, one of which, Jersey, has more than half the total population. The other, Guernsey, includes all the islands except Jersey. The monarch of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, represented by a lieutenant governor in each bailiwick, is the head of state. Each government is headed by the chief minister, who is elected by the bailiwick's legislature. Jersey's 58-seat Assembly of the States consists of both elected and appointed members. Members of Guernsey's 45-seat States of Deliberation are popularly elected for four years.

Christianization took place in the 6th cent., largely through the efforts of St. Helier and St. Sampson. In the 10th cent. the islands became possessions of the duke of Normandy. At the Norman conquest they were joined to the English crown; they remained under the control of King John and England in 1204 when Philip II of France confiscated the duchy of Normandy. The French attempted unsuccessfully to reestablish control in the 14th cent. and later. In World War II, after the evacuation of some 10,000 military and civilian personnel, the islands were occupied (1940) by German forces.

Bibliography

See study by J. Uttley (1966).


See also: National Parks and Monuments (table)National Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 48,419 (19,603) Mountain and coast scenery.
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Channel Islands

or

Santa Barbara Islands

(săn`tə bär`brə, –bərə), chain of eight rugged islands and many islets, extending c.150 mi (240 km) along the S Calif. coast from Point Conception to San Diego. The islands were visited in 1542 by Juan Rodriguez CabrilloCabrillo, Juan Rodríguez
, Port. João Rodrigues Cabrilho, d. 1543, Spanish conquistador and discoverer of California, b. Portugal. In 1520 he landed in Mexico with Pánfilo de Narváez and joined in the conquests of Mexico and Guatemala.
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, a Portuguese explorer in the service of Spain. They are located from 13 to 68 mi (21–109 km) west of the mainland. Santa Cruz (98 sq mi/254 sq km) is the largest island of the chain. Santa Catalina Island is the most economically developed of the islands and is a popular tourist center. The island fox and the Santa Cruz Island pine are native to the area; large numbers of sea mammals inhabit the waters around the islands, including sea-elephant and sea-lion herds and the California gray whale. Anacapa, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miguel constitute Channel Islands National Park, est. as a national monument 1938; designated a national park 1980 (see National Parks and MonumentsNational Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 48,419 (19,603) Mountain and coast scenery.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (table)).
References in periodicals archive ?
The new route will be a first between Scotland and the Channel Islands in some years.
Channel Islands Wholesale Group holds the Spar contract for the Channel Islands and as part of the deal bought 12 of Channel Islands Newsagents' 13 stores operating under two fascias--a CTN format called Pickwicks and a c-store format called rStore--for an undisclosed sum.
Delamere Dairy's Channel Island Milk is being filled at Framptons in Shepton Mallet, Somerset, using Tetra TR7/ESL technology.
Zoological facilities exhibiting the fox are able to study its natural history, thus providing an opportunity for mainland institutions to contribute to the Channel Island National Park's conservation and education efforts.
However, retailers operating on the Channel Islands said that there were rumours that Tesco had set aside some 10m [pounds sterling] to build a retail presence.
2) Emergency crews scan the waters off Channel Islands Harbor for other people who were stranded on the disabled sailing ship.
Channel Islands Beach is a residential beach strip west of Oxnard Harbor; the annexation has no connection to the actual Channel Islands.
The eight islands lie just off the Southern California coast, and five of them (plus a one-mile radius of their surrounding waters) are protected as Channel Islands National Park.
1 -- 2) Above, deckhand Todd Vallerine looks toward the horizon in search of cetaceans on Saturday near Channel Islands Harbor.
Contact the Channel Islands National Park visitors center at (805) 658-5730 or visit www.
The Channel Islands Chapter of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society will hold a fund-raising walk at 9 a.
Businesses at Channel Islands Harbor offering these sight-seeing excursions include Channel Islands Sportfishing, which provides excursions from January through April, (805) 382-1612; and Island Packers, which offers half-day trips from Dec.

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