Channel Islands

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Channel Islands,

archipelago (2005 est. pop. 156,000), 75 sq mi (194 sq km), 10 mi (16 km) off the coast of Normandy, France, in the English Channel. The main islands are JerseyJersey
, island (2005 est. pop. 90,800), 45 sq mi (117 sq km), in the English Channel, largest of the Channel Islands, which are dependencies of the British crown. It is 15 mi (24 km) from the Normandy coast of France and SE of Guernsey. Saint Helier, the capital, is on St.
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, GuernseyGuernsey
, island, 25 sq mi (65 sq km), in the English Channel, second largest of the Channel Islands. Guernsey bailiwick (2005 est. pop. 65,000) includes Alderney, Sark, Herm, Brechou, Jethou, and smaller islands.
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, AlderneyAlderney
, Fr. Aurigny , anc. Riduna, island (1991 pop. 2,297), c.3 sq mi (7.7 sq km), in the English Channel, northernmost of the larger Channel Islands. It is separated from the French coast and from the other islands by swift tidal races.
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, and SarkSark,
Fr. Sercq (sĕrk), island (1991 pop. 575), 2 sq mi (5 sq km), in the English Channel, E of Guernsey, one of the Channel Islands. It is divided into Great Sark and Little Sark, which are connected by a natural causeway, the Coupée.
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, and there are several smaller islands, including Herm, Jethou, and Lithou; all the islands are dependencies of the British crown. The inhabitants have historically been mostly of Norman descent, but on Alderney the stock is mainly English. In recent years many Britons have moved here, attracted by the favorable tax rates and the pleasant island atmosphere. Both French and English are spoken; in addition, a Norman patois and Norman customs are still maintained by many of the natives.

The mild and sunny climate (35–40 in./89–102 cm rainfall a year) and the fertile soil have made agriculture an important part of the islands' economy. Large quantities of vegetables, fruits, and flowers are shipped to English markets, but dairying is the chief agricultural occupation. The famous Jersey and Guernsey breeds of cattle are kept pure by local laws. Financial services and electronics manufacture are growing sectors of the economy, and the islands are a favorite resort of tourists and vacationers. The chief ports are St. HelierSaint Helier
, town (1991 pop. 24,941), capital of Jersey, Channel Islands, Great Britain, on St. Aubin's Bay. The administrative and cultural center of Jersey, St. Helier is also a residential town, resort, and point of export for local produce.
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 (Jersey) and St. Peter PortSaint Peter Port,
town (1991 pop. 16,100), capital of Guernsey, Channel Islands. Its shallow harbor is protected by piers; vegetables, fruits, and flowers are exported. Hauteville House, the residence of Victor Hugo from 1856 to 1870, contains memorials of the author.
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 (Guernsey). Much of the islands' capital and consumer goods, raw materials, fuels, and foodstuffs are imported.

The islands are divided into two administrative bailiwicks, one of which, Jersey, has more than half the total population. The other, Guernsey, includes all the islands except Jersey. The monarch of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, represented by a lieutenant governor in each bailiwick, is the head of state. Each government is headed by the chief minister, who is elected by the bailiwick's legislature. Jersey's 58-seat Assembly of the States consists of both elected and appointed members. Members of Guernsey's 45-seat States of Deliberation are popularly elected for four years.

Christianization took place in the 6th cent., largely through the efforts of St. Helier and St. Sampson. In the 10th cent. the islands became possessions of the duke of Normandy. At the Norman conquest they were joined to the English crown; they remained under the control of King John and England in 1204 when Philip II of France confiscated the duchy of Normandy. The French attempted unsuccessfully to reestablish control in the 14th cent. and later. In World War II, after the evacuation of some 10,000 military and civilian personnel, the islands were occupied (1940) by German forces.


See study by J. Uttley (1966).

References in periodicals archive ?
Their constitution requires them to reflect on their past and Channel Islanders are very aware of their situation and status in relation to the crown, Britain and the United Kingdom and to continental Europe.
Colin Ferbrache, chief officer, said: "The purchase of a new aircraft is an enormous undertaking and we know this could not be achieved without the tireless support of Channel Islanders.
Their biggest win was a 19-0 hammering of Channel Islanders Sark.
FASHION house Chanel has been refused permission to register its perfume Jersey as a trademark after objections from Channel Islanders.
Highlighting the previous two games before Friday's more convincing win over the Channel Islanders, Wells said: "I thought we were the second-best team against Bedford, to be totally honest.
Bristol-based Tellwright is one of several players who have come to Coventry midway through the season - having started his campaign in the Championship where he played six times for the Channel Islanders and scored against Doncaster.
Tynedale were the latest victims of leaders Jersey in SSE National One, with the Channel Islanders running in 64 unanswered points during their visit to Corbridge.
Four tries in the opening half gave the Channel Islanders the perfect platform and two more during a frenetic five minutes early in the second period guided them to their five-point haul.
Mn thrashed Channel Islanders Alderney 5-0 in their final group game, Rhys Roberts, Richard Hughes, Darren Gowans, Alex Jones and Thomas sharing the goals.
Graduate Gary, who lives in Jersey, won the inaugural CI Open title, an event open to all Channel Islanders.
Privately-owned personalised trench art and other handmade items prompt such powerful memories of occupation, that many Channel Islanders who have items such as these in their homes (often made by family members), keep them in the attic or out of sight in cupboards rather than on public display.
Channel Islanders held shore and boat UK record until 2001, when a Cornish angler from Newquay took the offshore title with a 4lb 14oz 4dms catch.

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