George Chapman

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Chapman, George,

1559?–1634, English dramatist, translator, and poet. He is as famous for his plays as for his poetic translations of Homer's Iliad (1612) and Odyssey (1614–15). Chapman was a classical scholar, and his work shows the influence of the Stoic philosophers, EpictetusEpictetus
, c.A.D. 50–c.A.D. 138, Phrygian Stoic philosopher. He wrote nothing, but his teachings were set down by his disciple Arrian in the Discourses and the Encheiridion.
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 and SenecaSeneca,
the younger (Lucius Annaeus Seneca) , c.3 B.C.–A.D. 65, Roman philosopher, dramatist, and statesman, b. Corduba (present-day Córdoba), Spain. He was the son of Seneca the elder.
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. In his best-known tragedies, Bussy D'Ambois (1607) and The Conspiracy and Tragedy of Byron (1608), the stoical hero is in classical tragedic style destroyed by some innate flaw. Chapman wrote and collaborated on nearly a dozen comedies, the most notable being All Fools (1605) and Eastward Ho! (1605), the latter written with Ben JonsonJonson, Ben,
1572–1637, English dramatist and poet, b. Westminster, London. The high-spirited buoyancy of Jonson's plays and the brilliance of his language have earned him a reputation as one of the great playwrights in English literature.
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 and John MarstonMarston, John,
1576–1634, English satirist and dramatist, b. Oxfordshire, grad. Oxford, 1594. In accordance with his father's wishes he studied law at Middle Temple, but his interests soon turned to literature.
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. Included among his other works are several metaphysical poems, a completed version of MarloweMarlowe, Christopher,
1564–93, English dramatist and poet, b. Canterbury. Probably the greatest English dramatist before Shakespeare, Marlowe, a shoemaker's son, was educated at Cambridge and he went to London in 1587, where he became an actor and dramatist for the Lord
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's Hero and Leander (1598), and translations of PetrarchPetrarch
or Francesco Petrarca
, 1304–74, Italian poet and humanist, one of the great figures of Italian literature. He spent his youth in Tuscany and Avignon and at Bologna.
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 and HesiodHesiod
, fl. 8th cent.? B.C., Greek poet. He is thought to have lived later than Homer, but there is no absolute certainty about the dates of his life. Hesiod portrays himself as a Boeotian farmer.
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.

Bibliography

See studies by M. MacLure (1966), C. Spivack (1967), and L. A. Cummings (1985).

Chapman, George (b. 1921)

(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

George Chapman, of Liverpool, England, became interested in Spiritualism after the death of his daughter in 1945. He received messages from different mediums that proved to him that life continued after death. He went on to study Spiritualism and became a medium and healer.

Chapman initially worked with the spirit of a Cree Native American healer named “Lone Star” and with “Chang,” a Chinese surgeon. Both gave Chapman advice on medical problems. Very quickly, however, these two spirits moved back to let another come forward and work with Chapman. This was the spirit of the deceased eminent eye specialist and surgeon Dr. William Lang (1852–1937), who took control in 1947.

There are two types of healers: those who are directed by spirit and those who are controlled by a spirit. Harry Edwards is a good example of a healer directed by spirit. He works as himself but is directed by discarnate spirit helpers. Chapman is a controlled healer. He goes into trance and a spirit speaks through him, manipulating his arms and hands to perform necessary actions. Chapman’s uttered words and actions are those of Dr. Lang.

When Lang takes over, Chapman’s face becomes wrinkled and looks many years older than Chapman’s actual age. Chapman also adopts a stooped stance that was characteristic of Lang when he was alive. The voice is a high-pitched, slightly quavery one, which old associates of Lang’s say is his. Also, as he works, Chapman/Lang snaps his fingers when he needs surgical instruments passed to him, again typical of the late Dr. Lang. Yet Chapman and Lang never met. Chapman was only sixteen when Lang died and he had no knowledge of the doctor.

No actual surgical instruments are used. Chapman, as the “doctor,” moves his hands over the patient and, in effect, mimes the actions of the surgery. The patient remains fully awake and fully clothed. After the operation Chapman goes through the motions of sewing up the incision. One patient claimed that she could feel every move made and that the stitching was very apparent to her. She said that although it was in no way painful, she could feel the flesh being drawn together. Throughout the operation Chapman’s eyes remain tightly closed. Afterward he claims to remember nothing of what took place after Dr. Lang’s arrival. Chapman operates a clinic in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, where many people have received permanent cures for their ailments.

Sources:

Buckland, Raymond: Buckland’s Book of Spirit Communications. St. Paul: Llewellyn, 2004
Wilson, Colin: The Supernatural: Healing Without Medicine. London: Aldus Books, 1975

Chapman, George

 

Born 1559 in Hitchin; died 1634 in London. English poet and dramatist.

Chapman, a graduate of Oxford University, was a writer of the Late Renaissance. His comedies reveal traits of the poetic comedy of the 1590’s, for example, The Gentleman Usher and Monsieur d’Olive (both published 1606) and of B. Jonson’s comedies of manners, for example, An Humourous Day’s Mirth (1599) and All Fools (published 1605). Chapman’s best-known comedy, Eastward Ho!, which was written together with J. Marston and Jonson (published 1605), contains elements of political satire.

Chapman’s tragedies represent a return to pre-Shakespearean drama, with its romantic pathos; they include Bussy d’Ambois (published 1607) and The Conspiracy and Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron (parts 1–2, published 1608). Chapman’s heroes stoically confront the coincidences of fate in such works as The Revenge of Bussy d’Ambois (published 1613) and Caesar and Pompey (published 1631).

Chapman also translated Homer, Hesiod, and Juvenal and completed C. Marlowe’s narrative poem Hero and Leander (1598).

WORKS

The Best Plays of the Old Dramatists: G. Chapman. London-New York, 1895.
In Russian translation:
“Vse v durakakh.” In the collection Sovremenniki Shekspira, vol. 1. Moscow, 1959.

REFERENCES

Ellis-Fermor, U. The Jacobean Drama. London [1958].
Spivack, C. George Chapman. New York [1967].

A. IA. LIVERGANT