Charles IX


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Charles IX,

1550–1611, king of Sweden (1604–11), youngest son of Gustavus I. He was duke of Södermanland, Närke, and Värmland before his accession. During the reign of his brother, John III (1568–92), he opposed John's leanings toward Catholicism. After John's death he acted as regent, summoned (1593) an assembly of clergy and nobles to Uppsala, and had it establish Lutheranism as the state religion. This measure was passed in anticipation of the arrival (1594) of John III's Catholic son and heir, King Sigismund IIISigismund III,
1566–1632, king of Poland (1587–1632) and Sweden (1592–99). The son of John III of Sweden and Catherine, sister of Sigismund II of Poland, he united the Vasa and Jagiello dynasties.
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 of Poland, who was obliged to pledge himself to uphold Protestantism in Sweden as a condition for his coronation. Sigismund left Sweden in the same year, and Charles summoned the Riksdag, was made regent against the king's wishes, and ousted all Catholic officials. The Swedish nobles were loyal to Sigismund, but the people supported Charles. Sigismund landed an army at Kalmar (1598), was defeated by Charles at Stangebro, and was deposed by the Riksdag in 1599. To consolidate his power Charles had most of his opponents executed, but he refused to accept the Swedish crown until Sigismund's brother, John, renounced it in 1604. In 1600 he invaded Livonia and thus began the long Polish-Swedish wars that ended only with the Peace of OlivaOliva, Peace of
, 1660, treaty signed at Oliva (now a suburb of Gdańsk) by Poland and Sweden. John II of Poland renounced the theoretical claim of his line to the Swedish crown, which his father, Sigismund III, had in practice lost in 1599.
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 in 1660. Charles's claim to Lapland involved him in the unsuccessful Kalmar War (1611–13) with Christian IVChristian IV,
1577–1648, king of Denmark and Norway (1588–1648), son and successor of Frederick II. After assuming (1596) personal rule from a regency, he concentrated on building the navy, industry, and commerce. He rebuilt Oslo and renamed it Christiania.
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 of Denmark. He died before the conclusion of the war and was succeeded by his son, Gustavus II.

Charles IX,

1550–74, king of France. He succeeded (1560) his brother Francis IIFrancis II,
1768–1835, last Holy Roman emperor (1792–1806), first emperor of Austria as Francis I (1804–35), king of Bohemia and of Hungary (1792–1835).
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 under the regency of his mother, Catherine de' MediciCatherine de' Medici
, 1519–89, queen of France, daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, duke of Urbino. She was married (1533) to the duc d'Orléans, later King Henry II.
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. She retained her influence throughout his reign. After 1570, however, Charles was temporarily under the sway of the French Huguenot leader Gaspard de ColignyColigny, Gaspard de Châtillon, comte de
, 1519–72, French Protestant leader. A nephew of Anne, duc de Montmorency, he came to the French court at an early age.
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. Catherine, fearing for her power, persuaded her weak son to approve the massacre of Saint Bartholomew's DaySaint Bartholomew's Day, massacre of,
murder of French Protestants, or Huguenots, that began in Paris on Aug. 24, 1572. It was preceded, on Aug. 22, by an attempt, ordered by Catherine de' Medici, on the life of the Huguenot leader Admiral Coligny.
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 in which Coligny and thousands of other Huguenots were murdered. Charles IX was succeeded by his brother Henry IIIHenry III,
1551–89, king of France (1574–89); son of King Henry II and Catherine de' Medici. He succeeded his brother, Charles IX. As a leader of the royal army in the Wars of Religion (see Religion, Wars of) against the French Protestants, or Huguenots, Henry, then
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.

Charles IX

1550--74, king of France (1560--74), son of Catherine de' Medici and Henry II: his reign was marked by war between Huguenots and Catholics
References in periodicals archive ?
The first four scenes provide the massacre's immediate context, while the first half of scene thirteen provides the only staging of its aftermath, in the form of the death of a guilt-stricken Charles ix.
Charles IX died in 1574 and was succeeded by his brother, the due d'Anjou, who now became Henri III.
Vers la fin de l'annee 1564, a la suite de leur passage a Hyeres, Charles IX et Catherine achetent meme un terrain pour y faire batir une villa et amenager un parc d'orangers.
It began in 1564 when King Charles IX decided to follow Pope Gregory's suggestion and begin the New Year with January and not April.
April Fools Day is believed to have started in 1564 when King Charles IX of France adopted the Gregorian calendar, shifting New Year celebrations from April 1 to January 1.
His account of Andrea Amati ignores Laurence Witten's important article "The Surviving Instruments of Andrea Amati" (Early Music 19 [1982]: 487-94), and he accepts uncritically the traditional "fact" that Amati made a set of thirty-eight violins for Charles IX of France (the earliest source for this information is Jean Benjamin de La Borde's Essai sur la musique ancienne et moderne [Paris, 1780]).
Baif--who was the illegitimate son of Lazare de Baif, humanist and diplomat--enjoyed royal favor and received pensions and benefices from Charles IX and Henry III.
This grant was confirmed by Francois I in 1538, Charles IX in 1566 and Louis XIII in 1629.
In France--where the turkey was, and is, called dinde because they believed it hailed from India--the bird was first served for the wedding feast of the young Charles IX to Elizabeth of Austria.
The third of four brothers he succeeded to the throne after the successive deaths of his two elder brothers, Francis II and Charles IX.
After sketching the backdrop of plague, famine and institutional tensions that preceded the outbreak of civil unrest in sixteenth-century France, De Waele outlines the "revolts" that took place during the reigns of Charles IX and Henri III, thus establishing the explosive terrain upon which Henri de Navarre would be called upon to maneuver.
These spectacles were part of a ten-day Carnival extravaganza designed to celebrate the reconciliation of warring factions following the first of the religious wars (1562-63) and to assert the authority of the thirteen-year-old king Charles IX, whose majority had been declared six months earlier by the Parliament of Rouen and was about to be impressed upon the whole kingdom by means at' a two-year royal tour of more than a hundred cities of the realm (1564-66).