Charles X


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Charles X,

1757–1836, king of France (1824–30); brother of King Louis XVI and of King Louis XVIII, whom he succeeded. As comte d'Artois he headed the reactionary faction at the court of Louis XVILouis XVI,
1754–93, king of France (1774–92), third son of the dauphin (Louis) and Marie Josèphe of Saxony, grandson and successor of King Louis XV. In 1770 he married the Austrian archduchess Marie Antoinette.
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. He left France (July, 1789) at the outbreak of the French Revolution and became a leading spirit of the émigréémigré
, in French history, a refugee, usually royalist, who fled the French Revolution and took up residence in a foreign land. The émigrés comprised all classes, but were disproportionately drawn from the privileged.
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 party. After his failure to aid the VendéeVendée
, department (1990 pop. 509,356), W France, on the Bay of Biscay, in Poitou. The offshore islands of Noirmoutier and Yeu are included in the department. Largely an agricultural (dairying, cattle raising) and forested region, the Vendée has many beach resorts
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 insurrection, he stayed in England until the Bourbon restoration (1814). During the reign of Louis XVIIILouis XVIII,
1755–1824, king of France (1814–24), brother of King Louis XVI. Known as the comte de Provence, he fled (1791) to Koblenz from the French Revolution and intrigued to bring about foreign intervention against the revolutionaries.
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 he headed the ultraroyalist opposition, which triumphed after the assassination (1820) of Charles's son the duc de BerryBerry, Charles Ferdinand, duc de
, 1778–1820, younger son of Charles, comte d'Artois (later Charles X of France). He served in the prince de Condé's army against the French Revolution.
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. The event caused the fall of the ministry of Élie DecazesDecazes, Élie
, 1780–1860, French statesman, a favorite of King Louis XVIII, who made him a duke in 1820. A lawyer and judge, Decazes was made minister of police in 1815 and was influential in the French government even before he became (1819) premier.
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 and the advent of the comte de VillèleVillèle, Jean Baptiste Séraphin Joseph, comte de
, 1773–1854, French statesman and premier (1822–28). Elected (1815) a deputy after the Bourbon restoration, he became leader of the extreme royalists in the chamber of deputies.
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, who continued as chief minister after Charles's accession. Among the many attempts of Charles and Villèle to reestablish elements of the ancien régime, as the prerevolutionary order is called, the law (1825) indemnifying the émigrés for lands confiscated during the Revolution and measures increasing the power of the clergy met with particular disapproval. The bourgeoisie and the liberal press joined in attacking the Villèle cabinet, which resigned in 1827. Villèle's successor, the vicomte de MartignacMartignac, Jean Baptiste Sylvère Gay, vicomte de
, 1778–1832, French statesman. He was elected (1821) to the chamber of deputies and was named a member of the council of state in 1822.
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, vainly tried to steer a middle course, and in 1829 Charles appointed an uncompromising reactionary, Jules Armand de PolignacPolignac, Jules Armand, prince de
, 1780–1847, French statesman. Belonging to one of the oldest families of France, he emigrated with them during the French Revolution. Under Napoleon I he was imprisoned (1804–14) for his part in the conspiracy of Georges Cadoudal.
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, as chief minister. To divert attention from internal affairs, Polignac initiated the French venture in AlgeriaAlgeria
, Arab. Al Djazair, Fr. Algérie, officially People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, republic (2005 est. pop. 32,532,000), 919,590 sq mi (2,381,741 sq km), NW Africa, bordering on Mauritania, Western Sahara, and Morocco in the west, on the
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. However, his dissolution (Mar., 1830) of the liberal chamber of deputies and his drastic July Ordinances, establishing rigid control of the press, dissolving the newly elected chamber, and restricting suffrage, resulted in the July RevolutionJuly Revolution,
revolt in France in July, 1830, against the government of King Charles X. The attempt of the ultraroyalists under Charles to return to the ancien régime provoked the opposition of the middle classes, who wanted more voice in the government.
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. Charles abdicated in favor of his grandson, the comte de ChambordChambord, Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné, comte de
, 1820–83, Bourbon claimant to the French throne, posthumous son of Charles Ferdinand, duc de Berry. His original title was duke of Bordeaux.
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, and embarked for Great Britain. However, the duc d'Orléans, whom Charles had appointed lieutenant general of France, was chosen "king of the French" as Louis PhilippeLouis Philippe
, 1773–1850, king of the French (1830–48), known before his accession as Louis Philippe, duc d'Orléans. The son of Philippe Égalité (see Orléans, Louis Philippe Joseph, duc d'), he joined the army of the French Revolution,
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. Charles died in exile, at Gorizia (then in the Austrian Empire).

Bibliography

See studies by V. W. Beach (1967 and 1971).


Charles X,

1622–60, king of Sweden (1654–60), nephew of Gustavus II. The son of John Casimir, count palatine of Zweibrücken, he brought the house of Wittelsbach to the Swedish throne when his cousin, Queen ChristinaChristina
, 1626–89, queen of Sweden (1632–54), daughter and successor of Gustavus II. From her father's death (1632) until 1644 she was under a regency headed by Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna.
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, abdicated in his favor. Before his accession, Charles had gained both military and diplomatic experience, fighting under TorstenssonTorstensson, Lennart
, 1603–51, Swedish general in the Thirty Years War. He was one of the generals trained by Gustavus II in the new techniques of war. As commander of the Swedish artillery at Breitenfeld (1631) and the Lech (1632), he was responsible for the success of
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 in the Thirty Years War and serving under Chancellor OxenstiernaOxenstierna, Count Axel Gustafsson
, 1583–1654, Swedish statesman. Named chancellor in 1612, he was the actual administrator of Sweden because Gustavus II was continually occupied with foreign campaigns.
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. As king, Charles remedied Christina's loss of crown lands by securing their restitution at the Riksdag of 1655. He reopened hostilities with Poland and took Warsaw and Kraków in 1655, but Polish resistance became formidable after the heroic and successful defense of CzęstochowaCzęstochowa
, city (1993 est. pop. 258,800), Śląskie prov., S Poland, on the Warta River. It is an important railway and industrial center, known especially for its iron and steel plant and iron-smelting works.
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. Charles's position deteriorated quickly. Czar Alexis of Russia invaded Livonia, Frederick IIIFrederick III,
1609–70, king of Denmark and Norway (1648–70), son and successor of Christian IV. He at first made great concessions to the powerful nobles but later asserted his own power. In 1657 war with Sweden began anew.
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 of Denmark declared war (1657) on Sweden, and Frederick William of Brandenburg deserted his alliance with Sweden. Charles hastened to Denmark, crossed the frozen sea to threaten Copenhagen, and forced the Danes to make peace. By the Treaty of Roskilde (1658) Sweden's southern boundary was extended to the sea; Denmark ceded to Sweden the provinces of Skåne, Halland, Blekinge, and Bohuslan and also Bornholm and part of Norway. Denmark's refusal to renounce an alliance with the Netherlands caused Charles to resume the war in 1658. England, the Netherlands, and France intervened in favor of Denmark. Charles, after concluding a truce with Russia (1658), began to negotiate for a general peace. He died suddenly before the negotiations were ended and was succeeded by his son, Charles XI. His wars were settled to the advantage of Sweden. By the Treaty of Copenhagen (1660) Sweden regained its four southern provinces from Denmark, and by the Treaty of Kardis (1661) with Russia the two countries returned to the prewar status quo. (For the settlement with Poland, see Oliva, Peace ofOliva, Peace of
, 1660, treaty signed at Oliva (now a suburb of Gdańsk) by Poland and Sweden. John II of Poland renounced the theoretical claim of his line to the Swedish crown, which his father, Sigismund III, had in practice lost in 1599.
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.) During Charles's reign Sweden lost New SwedenNew Sweden,
Swedish colony (1638–55), on the Delaware River; included parts of what are now Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. With the support of Swedish statesman Axel Oxenstierna, Admiral Klas Fleming (a Finn), and Peter Minuit (a Dutchman), the New Sweden Company
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 in America to the Dutch.

Charles X

1. title of Charles Gustavus. 1622--60, king of Sweden, who warred with Poland and Denmark in an attempt to create a unified Baltic state
2. 1757--1836, king of France (1824--30): his attempt to restore absolutism led to his enforced exile