Charles I

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Charles I,

1288–1342, king of Hungary (1308–42), founder of the AngevinAngevin
[Fr.,=of Anjou], name of two medieval dynasties originating in France. The first ruled over parts of France and over Jerusalem and England; the second ruled over parts of France and over Naples, Hungary, and Poland, with a claim to Jerusalem.
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 dynasty in Hungary; grandson of Charles IICharles II
(Charles the Lame), 1248–1309, king of Naples (1285–1309), count of Anjou and Provence, son and successor of Charles I. In the war of the Sicilian Vespers between Charles I and Peter III of Aragón for possession of Sicily, Charles was captured
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 of Naples, who had married a daughter of Stephen VStephen V,
1239–72, king of Hungary (1270–72), son and successor of Bela IV. As a child he was named duke of Transylvania, and in 1259 he was made duke of Styria.
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 of Hungary. On the death (1301) of Andrew III, last of the Arpad dynasty, Charles was the candidate of Pope Boniface VIII for the crown of St. Stephen, but the Hungarians elected Wenceslaus IIIWenceslaus III,
c.1289–1306, king of Bohemia (1305–6) and of Hungary (1301–5), son and successor of Wenceslaus II. On the death of Andrew III of Hungary, last of the Arpad dynasty, he was elected (1301) king of Hungary.
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 of Bohemia; in 1308 the Hungarian diet at last chose Charles, who was crowned in 1310. He reorganized the army on a feudal basis, using the nobility for its personnel, and taxed the bourgeoisie. Silver and gold mines became state monopolies, and in 1338 gold became the accepted currency. He encouraged trade and increased the privileges of the cities. He married his second son to Joanna I of Naples and took as his second wife Elizabeth, daughter of King Ladislaus I of Poland. In 1339 he secured the succession to Casimir III of Poland for his eldest son, later Louis I of Hungary.

Charles I,

1863–1908, king of Portugal (1889–1908), son and successor of Louis I. A cultured man, learned in language and oceanography, Charles had little opportunity to display his administrative talents in a reign beset by political stagnation and financial troubles. Portuguese and British ambitions clashed over Africa, and in 1890, Great Britain issued an ultimatum demanding that the Portuguese cease attempts to expand their African empire. The Portuguese complied, but the issue raised strong feeling against Charles's rule. Financial affairs grew worse, and Germany sought to obtain part of the Portuguese African empire. After a revolt in 1906, Charles empowered João Franco, head of the Regenerator (conservative) party, to establish a dictatorial government. This provoked another revolt in 1908, in the course of which Charles and his eldest son were assassinated in a public square in Lisbon. Charles's second son, Manuel IIManuel II,
1889–1932, king of Portugal (1908–10), second son of Charles I. He succeeded to the throne after the assassination of his father and elder brother, but in Oct., 1910, a revolution dethroned Manuel and established a republic.
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, succeeded to the throne.

Charles I

and

Charles II,

kings of Romania: see Carol ICarol I,
1839–1914, prince (1866–81) and first king (1881–1914) of Romania, of the house of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. He is also called Charles I. A Prussian officer, he was elected to succeed the deposed Alexander John Cuza as prince of Romania.
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 and Carol IICarol II,
1893–1953, king of Romania, son of King Ferdinand and Queen Marie. While crown prince, he contracted a morganatic marriage with Zizi Labrino but divorced her to marry (1921) Princess Helen of Greece.
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.

Charles I,

king of Spain: see Charles VCharles V,
1500–1558, Holy Roman emperor (1519–58) and, as Charles I, king of Spain (1516–56); son of Philip I and Joanna of Castile, grandson of Ferdinand II of Aragón, Isabella of Castile, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and Mary of Burgundy.
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, Holy Roman emperor.

Charles I,

Frankish king: see CharlemagneCharlemagne
(Charles the Great or Charles I) [O.Fr.,=Charles the great], 742?–814, emperor of the West (800–814), Carolingian king of the Franks (768–814).
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.

Charles I,

953–992?, duke of Lower Lorraine (977–91); younger son of King Louis IV of France. He claimed the French throne when his nephew, Louis V of France, died (987) without issue, but he was set aside in favor of Hugh CapetHugh Capet
, c.938–996, king of France (987–96), first of the Capetians. He was the son of Hugh the Great, to whose vast territories he succeeded in 956. After the death of Louis V, last Carolingian king of France, the nobles and prelates elected him king, setting
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. Charles seized Laon (988) and Reims (989), but was betrayed (991) by the bishop of Laon, who turned him over to Hugh. Charles died in prison. With the death of his sons the French Carolingian dynasty ended.

Charles I

(Charles of Anjou), 1227–85, king of Naples and Sicily (1266–85), count of Anjou and Provence, youngest brother of King Louis IX of France. He took part in Louis's crusades to Egypt (1248) and Tunisia (1270). After obtaining Provence by marriage (1246), he extended his influence into Piedmont. He became senator of Rome (1263, 1265–78) and undertook to champion the papal cause against ManfredManfred
, c.1232–1266, king of Sicily (1258–66), the last Hohenstaufen on that throne. An illegitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, Manfred was regent in Sicily for his brother Conrad IV.
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 in the kingdom of Naples and Sicily. In reward, he was crowned king (1266) by Pope Clement IV. Charles defeated (1266) Manfred at Benevento and defeated and executed ConradinConradin
, 1252–68, duke of Swabia, titular king of Jerusalem and Sicily, the last legitimate Hohenstaufen, son of Holy Roman Emperor Conrad IV. While Conradin was still a child in Germany, his uncle Manfred made himself (1258) king of Sicily.
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 in 1268. As leader of the Guelphs, or papal faction, he gained political hegemony in Italy and won suzerainty over several cities in Tuscany, Piedmont, and Lombardy, but his overbearing policies led to a cooling of his relations with the papacy. Planning to establish his own empire, he allied himself with the deposed Byzantine emperor, Baldwin IIBaldwin II,
1217–73, last Latin emperor of Constantinople (1228–61), brother and successor of Robert of Courtenay. He began his personal rule only after the death (1237) of his father-in-law, John of Brienne.
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, against Michael VIIIMichael VIII
(Michael Palaeologus), c.1225–1282, Byzantine emperor (1261–82), first of the Palaeologus dynasty. Following the murder of the regent for Emperor John IV of Nicaea, he was appointed (1258) regent and, soon afterward (1259), coemperor.
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 and fought for years in the Balkans. Corfu, Epirus, and Albania were taken, but the crushing taxes necessitated by his wars and his appointment of oppressive French officials to exact them led to the Sicilian VespersSicilian Vespers,
in Italian history, name given the rebellion staged by the Sicilians against the Angevin French domination of Sicily; the rebellion broke out at Palermo at the start of Vespers on Easter Monday, Mar. 30, 1282.
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 (1282). The ensuing war against the Sicilian rebels and Peter IIIPeter III
(Peter the Great), 1239?–1285, king of Aragón and count of Barcelona (1276–85) and king of Sicily (1282–85); son and successor of James I. In 1280 he established Aragonese influence on the northern shores of Africa.
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 of Aragón, chosen by the rebels as king of Sicily, continued under Charles's son and successor, Charles IICharles II
(Charles the Lame), 1248–1309, king of Naples (1285–1309), count of Anjou and Provence, son and successor of Charles I. In the war of the Sicilian Vespers between Charles I and Peter III of Aragón for possession of Sicily, Charles was captured
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. Charles I was the founder of the first AngevinAngevin
[Fr.,=of Anjou], name of two medieval dynasties originating in France. The first ruled over parts of France and over Jerusalem and England; the second ruled over parts of France and over Naples, Hungary, and Poland, with a claim to Jerusalem.
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 dynasty in Naples.

Charles I,

emperor of the West and Frankish king: see CharlemagneCharlemagne
(Charles the Great or Charles I) [O.Fr.,=Charles the great], 742?–814, emperor of the West (800–814), Carolingian king of the Franks (768–814).
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.

Charles I,

1600–1649, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625–49), second son of James I and Anne of Denmark.

Early Life

He became heir to the throne on the death of his older brother Henry in 1612 and was made prince of Wales in 1616. The negotiations for his marriage to the Spanish infanta were unpopular in England, and Charles himself turned against Spain after his unhappy visit to Madrid (1623) in the company of George Villiers, 1st duke of BuckinghamBuckingham, George Villiers, 1st duke of
, 1592–1628, English courtier and royal favorite. He arrived (1614) at the English court as James I was tiring of his favorite, Robert Carr, earl of Somerset.
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. Apart from these negotiations, he took little part in politics before he succeeded (Feb., 1625) his father as king.

Reign

Early Struggle with Parliament

A shy and dignified figure, he was popular at the time of his coronation, but he immediately offended his Protestant subjects by his marriage to the Catholic Henrietta MariaHenrietta Maria
, 1609–69, queen consort of Charles I of England, daughter of Henry IV of France. She married Charles in 1625. Although she was devoted and loyal to her husband, her Roman Catholic faith made her suspect in England.
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, sister of Louis XIII of France. Charles's favorite, Buckingham, was unpopular, and the foreign ventures under Buckingham's guidance were unfortunate, particularly the unsuccessful expedition to Cádiz (1625) and the two disastrous attempts to relieve French Protestants in La Rochelle (1627 and 1628). Nor would Parliament willingly grant money to help Charles's sister, Elizabeth of Bohemia, and the Protestants in the Thirty Years War. The reign eventuated in the bitter struggle for supremacy between the king and Parliament that finally resulted in the English civil warEnglish civil war,
1642–48, the conflict between King Charles I of England and a large body of his subjects, generally called the "parliamentarians," that culminated in the defeat and execution of the king and the establishment of a republican commonwealth.
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.

Parliament had a substantial role in the making of money grants to the king and adopted the tactic of withholding grants until its grievances were redressed. The Parliament of 1625 refused money, demanded ministers it could trust, and was soon dissolved by Charles. That of 1626 was dissolved when it started impeachment proceedings against Buckingham. Charles, to meet his needs for money, resorted to quartering troops upon the people and to a forced loan, which he attempted to collect by prosecutions and imprisonments.

Forced to call Parliament again in 1628, he was compelled to agree to the Petition of RightPetition of Right,
1628, a statement of civil liberties sent by the English Parliament to Charles I. Refusal by Parliament to finance the king's unpopular foreign policy had caused his government to exact forced loans and to quarter troops in subjects' houses as an economy
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, in return for a badly needed subsidy. Charles adjourned Parliament when it declared that his continued collection of customs duties was a violation of the Petition. Although Buckingham was assassinated (1628), the parliamentary session of 1629 was bitter. It closed dramatically with a resolution condemning unauthorized taxation and attempts to change existing church practices.

The Years of No Parliament

Charles governed without Parliament for 11 years after 1629, which were marked by popular opposition to strict enforcement of the practices of the Established Church by Archbishop William LaudLaud, William,
1573–1645, archbishop of Canterbury (1633–45). He studied at St. John's College, Oxford, and was ordained a priest in 1601. From the beginning Laud showed his hostility to Puritanism. He became president of St.
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 and to the ingenious if disingenuous devices employed by the government to obtain funds. The royally controlled courts of high commission and Star Chamber waged a harsh campaign against nonconformists and recusants (Catholics), and large emigrations to America, of both Puritans and Catholics, took place. The trial (1637–38) of John HampdenHampden, John
, 1594–1643, English parliamentary leader; cousin of Oliver Cromwell. He entered Parliament in 1621, became closely associated with Sir John Eliot, and was imprisoned (1627) for refusing to pay the forced loan demanded by Charles I.
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 for refusal to pay a tax of ship money greatly increased public indignation. Meanwhile Charles's deputy in Ireland, Thomas Wentworth, earl of StraffordStrafford, Thomas Wentworth, 1st earl of,
1593–1641, English statesman. Regularly elected to Parliament from 1614 on, he became one of the critics of George Villiers, 1st duke of Buckingham, and of the war with
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, was carrying out a wide program of reforms through his oppressive policy of "Thorough."

Renewed Struggles with Parliament

Conditions in England reached a crisis when Charles attempted (1637) to force episcopacy upon the Scots, an attempt that was violently opposed by the Scottish CovenantersCovenanters
, in Scottish history, groups of Presbyterians bound by oath to sustain each other in the defense of their religion. The first formal Covenant was signed in 1557, signaling the beginning of the Protestant effort to seize power in Scotland.
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 and that resulted in the Bishops' WarsBishops' Wars,
two brief campaigns (1639 and 1640) of the Scots against Charles I of England. When Charles attempted to strengthen episcopacy in Scotland by imposing (1637) the English Book of Common Prayer, the Scots countered by pledging themselves in the National Covenant
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. Unable to wage war effectively, Charles in May, 1640, summoned the so-called Short Parliament, which demanded redress of grievances before granting funds and was dissolved.

Another attempt to carry on the war without Parliament failed, and the famous Long Parliament was summoned in November. Under the leadership of John PymPym, John
, 1583?–1643, English statesman. A Puritan opposed equally to Roman Catholicism and to Arminianism in the Anglican church, Pym early became prominent in the parliamentary opposition to Charles I.
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, John Hampden, and Sir Henry VaneVane, Sir Henry,
1613–62, English statesman; son of Sir Henry Vane (1589–1655). Early converted to Puritanism, he went to New England in 1635 and became governor of Massachusetts in 1636.
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 (the younger), Parliament secured itself against dissolution without its own consent and brought about the death of StraffordStrafford, Thomas Wentworth, 1st earl of,
1593–1641, English statesman. Regularly elected to Parliament from 1614 on, he became one of the critics of George Villiers, 1st duke of Buckingham, and of the war with
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, the abolition of the courts of high commission and Star Chamber, and the end of unparliamentary taxation.

Charles professed to accept the revolutionary legislation, though he was known to hold strong views on the divine right of monarchy. Parliament's trust in the king was further undermined when his queen was implicated in the army plot to coerce Parliament, and Charles was suspected of complicity in the Irish rebellion (1641) and its resulting atrocities, especially in Ulster. In 1641, Parliament presented its Grand Remonstrance, calling for religious and administrative reforms and reciting in full its grievances against the king. Charles repudiated the charges, and his unsuccessful attempt to seize five opposition leaders of Commons in violation of traditional privilege was the fatal blunder that precipitated war.

Civil War and Execution

There were no decisive victories in the civil war until Charles was defeated at Marston Moor (1644) and Naseby (1645). In 1646 he gave himself up to the Scottish army, which delivered him to Parliament. He was ultimately taken over by the English army leaders, who were now highly suspicious of Parliament. He escaped (Nov., 1647) to Carisbrooke, on the Isle of Wight, where he concluded an alliance with the discontented Scots, which led to the second civil war (1648) and another royalist defeat. Parliament, now reduced in number by Pride's Purge (see under Pride, ThomasPride, Thomas,
d. 1658, English parliamentary soldier in the English civil war. In Dec., 1648, acting on the orders of the army council, he carried out Pride's Purge,
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) and controlled by Charles's most powerful enemies, established a special high court of justice (see regicidesregicides
[Lat., =king-killers], in English history, name given to those judges and court officers responsible for the trial and execution of Charles I in 1649. After the Restoration (1660) of the monarchy they were excepted from the general pardon granted by the Act of
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), which tried Charles and convicted him of treason for levying war against Parliament. He was beheaded on Jan. 30, 1649. To the royalists he became the martyred king and author of the Eikon BasilikeEikon Basilike
[Gr.,=royal image], subtitled "the Portraiture of His Sacred Majesty in His Solitudes and Sufferings," a work published soon after the execution of Charles I of England in 1649. It purports to be the king's spiritual autobiography.
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. By his opponents he was considered a double-dealing tyrant.

Bibliography

See biography by C. Hibbert (1968); C. Hill, The Century of Revolution, 1603–1714 (1961); C. V. Wedgwood, The Great Rebellion: The King's Peace, 1637–1641 (1955), The King's War 1641–1647 (1958), and A Coffin for King Charles (1964); M. Ashley, Charles I and Cromwell (1988); L. J. Reeve, Charles I and the Road to Personal Rule (1989).


Charles I,

1887–1922, last emperor of Austria and, as Charles IV, king of Hungary (1916–18); son of Archduke Otto and grandnephew and successor of Emperor Francis Joseph. He married ZitaZita
, 1892–1989, last empress of Austria and queen of Hungary. The daughter of Duke Robert of Parma, she was married (1911) to Archduke Charles Francis, who in 1916 became emperor as Charles I.
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 of Bourbon-Parma. The death (1914) of his uncle, Francis FerdinandFrancis Ferdinand,
1863–1914, Austrian archduke, heir apparent (after 1889) of his uncle, Emperor Francis Joseph. In 1900 he married a Czech, Sophie Chotek. She was made duchess of Hohenberg, but because she was of minor nobility their children were barred from succession.
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, made Charles heir to the throne. He showed skill as a commander in World War I. After his accession he put out peace feelers. His correspondence with his brother-in-law, Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-ParmaSixtus of Bourbon-Parma, Prince,
1886–1934, son of Robert, last duke of Parma. While serving as an officer in the Belgian army, he was the intermediary for his brother-in-law, Emperor Charles I of Austria-Hungary, in Charles's secret attempt to negotiate peace with the
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, justified French claims to Alsace-Lorraine. The Allies published (Apr., 1918) the correspondence, thus causing friction between Austria and Germany and diminishing Charles's popularity. Charles vainly tried to save the Austro-Hungarian monarchy by proclaiming (Oct. 16, 1918) an Austrian federative state. Hungary and Czechoslovakia declared their independence, and on Nov. 3, Charles had to consent to unconditional surrender in the armistice concluded with General Armando Diaz. Charles abdicated as emperor of Austria on Nov. 11 and as king of Hungary on Nov. 13; early in 1919 he and his family went into exile in Switzerland. After the triumph of the monarchists in Hungary in 1920, he attempted unsuccessfully to regain the Hungarian throne in Mar., 1921, and again in October, when the regent, HorthyHorthy de Nagybanya, Nicholas
, Hung. Nagybányai Horthy Miklós, 1868–1957, Hungarian admiral and regent. He commanded the Austro-Hungarian fleet in World War I.
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, had him arrested. Charles was exiled to Madeira and there died of pneumonia. His son, Archduke Otto, inherited his claim to the throne. Charles I was beatified in 2004.

Bibliography

See biographies by H. Vivian (1932) and G. Shepherd (1968).

Charles I

 

Born Aug. 17, 1887, in Persenberg, Lower Austria; died Apr. 1, 1922, in Funchal, Madeira Island. Emperor of Austria, king of Hungary as Charles IV (1916–).

Charles I belonged to the Hapsburg dynasty. During the revolution of 1918, he was forced to renounce the Austrian throne on Nov. 11, 1918, and the Hungarian throne on Nov. 13, 1918.

REFERENCES

Turok, V. M. Ocherki istorii Avstrii 1918–29. Moscow, 1955.
Polzer-Hoditz, A. Kaiser Karl. Zurich, 1929.

Charles I

 

(Károly Robert, Charles Robert). Born 1288; died July 16, 1342, in Visegrád. Hungarian king from 1308 to 1342. Founder of the Anjou dynasty in Hungary.

During Charles’ reign, the central regime, which was supported by the church, petty nobility, and city dwellers, was strengthened. Cities grew, and mining and trade expanded. In 1335, Charles signed the Visegrád trade agreement with Bohemia and Poland. He waged unsuccessful wars against Venice, Serbia, and Walachia.


Charles I

 

(Charles d’Anjou). Born in March 1226; died Jan. 7, 1285, in Foggia. King of Sicily (1268– in name, from 1266) and Naples (1282–). Count of Anjou, Maine, and Provence.

Charles I was the son of the French king Louis VIII. Proposedfor the Sicilian throne by the papacy, he was crowned by PopeClement IV in 1266. He took over the kingdom of Sicily in 1268, having triumphed over the kings of the Hohenstaufen dynasty(over Manfred at Bonevento in 1266 and over his success or Conradin at Tagliacozzo in 1268). In 1270, Charles took part in Louis IX’s crusade to Tunis. He sought to subjugate Northern and Central Italy, the Balkan Peninsula (where he captured a number of cities), all of Byzantium, and the Levant States. His extensive disbursements of land and privileges in Southern Italy and Sicily to the numerous French knights who accompanied him, as well as the sharp increase in feudal exploitation and oppressive taxation, resulted in a popular uprising in Sicily, known as the Sicilian Vespers, in 1282. Having lost his control of the island, Charles’ possessions were limited to Southern Italy, known as the Neapolitan kingdom.


Charles I

 

(Carlos I). Born Sept. 28, 1863, in Lisbon; died there Feb. 1, 1908. Portuguese king from 1889.

Charles I supported the most reactionary circles of the absolutist clerical party. He suppressed the republican uprising of 1891 and increased the economic and political dependence of Portugal on Great Britain. He was killed by a republican.

Charles I

1. title as Holy Roman Emperor of Charlemagne
2. title as king of France of Charles II (Holy Roman Emperor)
3. title as king of Spain of Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor)
4. title of Charles Stuart 1600--49, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625--49); son of James I. He ruled for 11 years (1629--40) without parliament, advised by his minister Strafford, until rebellion broke out in Scotland. Conflict with the Long Parliament led to the Civil War and after his defeat at Naseby (1645) he sought refuge with the Scots (1646). He was handed over to the English army under Cromwell (1647) and executed
5. 1887--1922, emperor of Austria, and, as Charles IV, king of Hungary (1916--18). The last ruler of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, he was forced to abdicate at the end of World War I
References in periodicals archive ?
Cigoli's dynamic pen and ink study for a painting of Charles of Anjou defeating Manfred at the battle of Benevento (no.
Campbell is well justified in her search for literary and artistic sources descending from the courts of France because the adjoining council hall portrays an enthroned Charles of Anjou flanked by a frieze of falconers, huntsmen, and knights on horseback along with other trappings of court life which fill most of the murals.
The Roman papacy had engineered the destruction of the Hohenstaufen dynasty by employing its spiritual weapons -- excommunication, interdict, and the deposition of Frederick II -- and by relying upon the resources of a temporal prince, Charles of Anjou, to whom Pope Innocent IV gave the kingdom of Naples.