Charles the Bold

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Charles the Bold,

1433–77, last reigning duke of Burgundy (1467–77), son and successor of Philip the GoodPhilip the Good,
1396–1467, duke of Burgundy (1419–67); son of Duke John the Fearless. After his father was murdered (1419) at a meeting with the dauphin (later King Charles VII of France), Philip formed an alliance with King Henry V of England.
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. As the count of Charolais before his accession, he opposed the growing power of King Louis XILouis XI,
1423–83, king of France (1461–83), son and successor of Charles VII. Early Life

As dauphin Louis was almost constantly in revolt against his father.
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 of France by joining (1465) the League of Public Weal. In 1468 he had Louis arrested during their interview at Péronne and compelled him to help in subduing Liège, where Louis had incited a revolt. Charles allied himself with England by his marriage (1468) to Margaret, the sister of King Edward IV. Master of the Low Countries, Charles ruled Burgundy, Flanders, Artois, Brabant, Luxembourg, Holland, Zeeland, Friesland, and Hainaut; he dreamed of reestablishing the kingdom of LotharingiaLotharingia
, name given to the northern portion of the lands assigned (843) to Emperor of the West Lothair I in the first division of the Carolingian empire (see Verdun, Treaty of).
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. He needed Alsace, Lorraine, and a royal title to achieve his goal. In 1473 he met Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III at Trier to arrange a marriage between his daughter Mary and Frederick's son, the future Maximilian I; Charles was to have been crowned king of Lotharingia. However, the emperor broke off negotiations; the marriage took place (1477) only after Charles's death. Meanwhile, Charles continued to conquer the lands that separated his possessions. His struggles with the Alsatian towns and his occupation (1473) of Lorraine alienated the Swiss cantons, which were allied with France. In 1474 war broke out between Charles and the Swiss. Charles's English ally, Edward IV, invaded France (1475), but accepted a bribe from Louis XI and ceased hostilities. Charles was routed (1476) by the Swiss at Grandson and Morat. Early in 1477, at Nancy, Charles was defeated utterly and killed by the Swiss and the Lorrainers. His heiress, Mary of BurgundyMary of Burgundy,
1457–82, wife of Maximilian of Austria (later Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I), daughter and heiress of Charles the Bold of Burgundy. The marriage of Mary was a major event in European history, for it established the Hapsburgs in the Low Countries and
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, lost part of her possessions to France, the rest passing to the Hapsburgs through her marriage with Maximilian. Once powerful Burgundy ceased to exist as a state. Charles, who earned his surname by his impetuous gallantry, was a capable, though harsh, ruler; however, his achievements were short-lived.

Bibliography

See the chronicles of Philippe de CominesComines, Philippe de
, c.1447–c.1511, French historian, courtier, and diplomat. In 1472 he left the service of Charles the Bold of Burgundy to enter that of Louis XI of France, who rewarded him richly.
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; biography by R. Vaughan (1974); J. L. A. Calmette, The Golden Age of Burgundy (tr. 1962); S. Marti et al., ed, Splendour of the Burgundian Court: Charles the Bold (1433–1477) (2009).

Charles the Bold

 

(Charles Le Téméraire). Born Nov. 10, 1433, in Dijon; died Jan. 5, 1477, near Nancy. Count of Charoláis, duke of Burgundy (from 1467). Son of Philip the Good.

Charles the Bold strove to unify his fragmented holdings and turn Burgundy into a large and powerful state. On a number of occasions (1452–, 1465, 1467, 1468) he suppressed with merciless cruelty the uprisings of the Dutch cities that had become part of the Burgundian state. He was the most dangerous and powerful enemy of Louis XI, who was energetically carrying out the centralization and territorial unification of France. The struggle between the two sovereigns was almost continual. Even while Charles’ father was still alive, he was the actual leader of the coalition against Louis XI (the League of the Public Weal). He forced the French king to cede him cities on the Somme (the treaties of 1465 of Conflans and St. Maur). To secure the support of King Edward IV of England, he married Edward’s sister Margaret. He attempted to seize Alsace (part of which he had received from Sigismund of Tirol, a Hapsburg, in 1469 as a guarantee) and Lorraine (a number of fortresses were transferred to him from Duke Rene II in 1473). However, he lost his allies (including the English king) and was left isolated through the adroitness of Louis XI, who relied on diplomatic negotiations and bribes. In the Burgundian Wars of 1474–77 (waged against Charles by Switzerland and Lorraine, secretly supported and subsidized by France), Charles was betrayed by mercenaries bribed by Louis XI and died in battle at Nancy.

REFERENCE

Néret, J. A. Le Téméraire: Charles de Bourgogne. Paris, 1952.

N. A. DENISOVA-KHACHATURIAN

References in periodicals archive ?
War between Charles the Bold of Burgundy and France's Louis XI caused many weavers to flee from the area.