Charophyta

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Related to Charophyte: Charales, Charophyta

Charophyta

[kə′räf·əd·ə]
(botany)
A group of aquatic plants, ranging in size from a few inches to several feet in height, that live entirely submerged in water.

Charophyta

 

(also Charophyceae), a phylum of algae or, according to some classifications, a class of green algae. The plants reach 1 m in height and have lateral branches that depart in whorls from multicellular nodes. Each internode consists of one cell, which may become overgrown by a bark of narrow cells that grow upward and downward from the nodes. The cell membranes are sometimes calcified. The lower parts, which are submerged in mud or sand, are colorless and have rhizoids. Vegetative reproduction occurs from various parts of the algae and from unicellular or multicellular tubercles formed on shoots in the ground. Asexual reproduction by spores is absent. The organs of sexual reproduction are multicellular: the oogoniums (spore buds), with one egg cell, and the antheridia. Fertilization occurs on the maternal plant; meiosis occurs when the oogonium sprouts, with three nuclei out of four being destroyed.

There are 300 species, making up six genera. The USSR has 45 species. The algae grow in freshwaters and in areas of seas with decreased salinity. They have the property of softening hard water. Charophyta are known in fossil form from the Devonian.

References in periodicals archive ?
Relationships between mechanical disturbance and biomass of the invasive amphipod Gammarus tigrinus within a charophyte dominated macrophyte community.
In the northern part of the outcrop loose sandy material contains rich accumulations of charophyte gyrogonites, previously tentatively identified as belonging to the genus Trochiliscus (Savvaitova 1977).
Although it may eventually be determined which charophyte is "closest" to primitive land plants, in terms of molecular-genetic data, we must bear in mind that we are looking, in all these forms, at extant plants (as representatives of ancestral forms), not at the actual ancestors of land plants.
However, no coefficients of conservatism were given to non-native species and native charophytes.
charophytes, bivalves, and cirripeds (Mytilus trossulus, Dreissena polymorpha, Macoma balthica, Mya arenaria, and Amphibalanus improvisus).
Although the correlation between an increase in charophyte stands and a good state of very shallow hard-water lakes has been studied intensively and verified (Scheffer, 1998; Berg, 1999), the problem of how indicative charophytes are for the non-impacted state is not solved in all aspects.
The Vainameri area belongs to the good ecological quality class as most of the macrovegetation biomass is formed by perennial species supported by high coverage of charophyte communities or Fucus spp.
Larvae of this species were found in partially shaded clear water, with the presence of mats of the genus of filamentous charophyte green algae, Spyrogira.
However, the grouping of all charophyte species by genus and assigning a single C value to each group results in a loss of information and may not provide an accurate evaluation of the floristic quality of a given site.
Indeed, Pliny the Younger considered the charophytes to be members of the genus Equisetum (Plinius Secundus, 1469).
In 1957 macrophyte assemblages in the northern part of the lake were characterized by dominance of charophytes and presence of Ranunculus circinatus Sibth.