Hasidim

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Hasidim

or

Chassidim

(both: häsē`dĭm, khä–) [Heb.,=the pious], term used by the rabbis to describe those Jews who maintained the highest standard of religious observance and moral action. The term has been applied to movements at three distinct times. The first Hasidim, also called the Assideans or Hasideans, were an ancient Jewish sect that developed between 300 B.C. and 175 B.C. They were the most rigid adherents of Judaism in contradistinction to those Jews who were beginning to be affected by Hellenistic influences. The Hasidim led the resistance to the hellenizing campaign of Antiochus IV of Syria, and they figured largely in the early phases of the revolt of the MaccabeesMaccabees
or Machabees
, Jewish family of the 2d and 1st cent. B.C. that brought about a restoration of Jewish political and religious life. They are also called Hasmoneans or Asmoneans after their ancestor, Hashmon.
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. Their ritual strictness has caused some to see them as forerunners of the Pharisees. Throughout the Talmudic period numerous figures were referred to as Hasidim. During the 12th and 13th cent., however, there arose in Germany a specific group known as the Hasidei Ashkenaz. Influenced by Saadia ben Joseph and with messianic and mystical elements, it held as its central ideology the unity of God, the application of justice in all situations, social and economic equality, and martyrdom at the hands of the crusaders rather than compromise of any kind. The chief ethical work that derived from the group was the Sefer Hasidim (tr. Book of the Pious, 1973). The third movement to which the term Hasidim is applied is that founded in the 18th cent. by Baal-Shem-Tov and known as HasidismHasidism
or Chassidism
[Heb.,=the pious], Jewish religious movement founded in Poland in the 18th cent. by Baal-Shem-Tov. Its name derives from Hasidim. Hasidism, which stressed the mercy of God and encouraged joyous religious expression through music and dance, spread
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.

Bibliography

See S. Lieberman, Hellenism in Jewish Palestine (1962); S. G. Kramer, God and Man in the Sefer Hasidim (1966); A. L. Lowenkopf, The Hasidim (1973). See also bibliography under HasidismHasidism
or Chassidism
[Heb.,=the pious], Jewish religious movement founded in Poland in the 18th cent. by Baal-Shem-Tov. Its name derives from Hasidim. Hasidism, which stressed the mercy of God and encouraged joyous religious expression through music and dance, spread
..... Click the link for more information.
.

References in periodicals archive ?
With the bitter conflict between Mitnagdim and Chasidim long behind us, there is no good reason to perpetuate the Gra's polemical interpretation of the Haggadah and no justification to spread the erroneous belief that the Haggadah makes not a single mention of Moses.
In contrast to most Satmar chasidim, he had a finely trimmed goatee, and with his silver handled cane and black homburg, cut a stylish figure.
Both, for example, explain Chasidim (Haxidepai in Chinese) as "a sect which is against Talmud and promotes pantheism," among other things.
His training as a young boy in the traditions of the Gerer Chasidim imprinted upon him a respect for Judaism and its texts, and there are numerous pages in his chronicle where he enriches the narrative with eminently suitable quotations from the Torah, the Talmud, and the writings of major Jewish thinkers.
Still, when they fought about Jews and Stalin, they hollered and shouted at each other with all the holy passion of the misnagdim against the Chasidim.
Dik's in-laws were staunch Chasidim, while Dik himself despised Chasidism, regarding it as a gross superstition, almost akin to idolatry.
Reb Yankele was a Chasid, one of the Chasidim of Reb Nachman of Bratslav.
The rise of the Chasidic Movement in the 17th century was welcomed with excommunication by leading Rabbis of the era; today, the Chasidim are considered "ultra-Orthodox" in the spectrum of Judaism.
Of all the schisms in Judaism Christianity is but one example--Cabbalah is one of a few that gained full acceptance in the Jewish mainstream, from Chasidim, who are the next link in the mystical chain, to the proudly rational Reform, who use rituals and liturgy developed by the Safed mystics.
The leaders of the Chasidim address their communities and say: "Yidn (fellow Jews), let us do teshuvah and repent from our sins, and let us be prepared for the great Day of Judgment, at which time we will appear in the presence of the Court on High.
Clearly, conflicting identifies emerged, as Ashkenazic Zionists, Sephardic Jews, and Chasidim all tried to "build" differing pasts in the land of Israel.
Berger lists seven different reasons, usually given by others, why he now believes that support for his view has been so slow in coming: 1) to avoid community strife; 2) Lubavitcher Chasidim live an exemplary Orthodox life; 3) Orthodoxy is already "Balkanized," so it is used to different Orthodoxies; 4) Lubavitch is a small movement, intertwined with other Orthodox groups in many ways; 5) Lubavitch is a very large, successful movement, of international, global reach and influence; 6) the messianism in Lubavitch is a "transient insanity"; 7) "they do so many good things.