Chemical Synthesis


Also found in: Medical, Wikipedia.

chemical synthesis

[′kem·i·kəl ′sin·thə·səs]
(chemistry)
The formation of one chemical compound from another.

Synthesis, Chemical

 

the planned production of complex compounds from simpler compounds based on a knowledge of the reactants’ chemical structure and reactivity. Chemical synthesis usually implies a sequence of several chemical processes (steps).

In the early period in the development of chemistry, chemical synthesis was carried out mainly for inorganic compounds and was fortuitous in nature. The synthetic production of complex substances became possible only after knowledge had been gained on the composition and properties of the substances, knowledge derived from the development of organic and physi-cochemical analysis. Of cardinal importance were the first syntheses of organic compounds, namely, oxalic acid and urea, by F. Wôhler in 1824 and 1828. Attempts to synthesize analogues of complex natural compounds in the mid-19th century, when a unified theory on the structure of organic compounds did not exist, indicated only the possibility, in principle, of synthesizing such compounds as fats (P. E. M. Berthelot) and carbohydrates (A. M. Butlerov). Indigo, camphor, and other relatively simple compounds were subsequently synthesized in accordance with a theory, as were more complex molecules, such as certain carbohydrates, amino acids, and peptides.

In the 1920’s, the work of R. Robinson on the preparation of a series of complex molecules by paths that imitated those governing the formation of the molecules in nature proved to be of seminal importance to the methodology of chemical synthesis. A rapid development of chemical synthesis began in the late 1930’s, first in the area of steroids, alkaloids, and vitamins and then in the area of isoprenoids, antibiotics, polysaccharides, peptides, and nucleic acids. R. B. Woodward made significant contributions to the development of fine organic synthesis in the 1940’s through 1960’s, carrying out the synthesis of a series of important natural compounds, including quinine, cortisone, chlorophyll, tetracycline, and vitamin B,2. An example of the great advance in chemical synthesis is seen in the first complete synthesis of the gene of the alanine transfer-ribonucleic acid of yeast, which was carried out in 1970 by H. G. Khorana and his colleagues.

The development of organic synthesis is proceeding in a number of directions. One of these involves the production of industrially important products (polymers, synthetic fuels, dyes), another the preparation of various physiologically active substances for medicine, agriculture, food processing, and perfumery. A third branch is concerned with establishing the structure of complex natural compounds and obtaining molecules with unusual structures for testing and refining theories of organic chemistry. A fourth branch seeks to expand the number of reactions and methods that can be used in chemical synthesis. Included in this category is the use of catalysts and high energies and the broader use of microorganisms and purified enzymes under rigidly controlled conditions. In the 1970’s, computers have been used for optimizing the results of multi-step chemical syntheses.

The development and perfection of certain methods used in synthesis has permitted the preparation of many important chemical products on an industrial scale. In inorganic chemistry, these products include nitric acid, ammonia, sulfuric acid, sodium carbonate, and various coordination compounds. There is also large-scale production of the organic substances used in various branches of the chemical industry, as well as of the products of fine organic synthesis (hormones, vitamins).

REFERENCES

Reutov, O. A. Organicheskii sintez, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1954.
Perspektivy razvitiia organicheskoi khimii. Edited by A. Todd. Moscow, 1959. (Translated from English and German.)
Cram, D., and G. Hammond. Organicheskaia khimiia. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from English.)

S. A. POGODIN and E. P. SEREBRIAKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Table 85: Chinese Historic Review for Hydrogen Peroxide by End-Use Industry - Pulp & Paper, Textiles, Environmental, Chemical Synthesis, and Other End-Use Industries Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in Metric Tons for Years 2006 through 2012 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-68 Table 86: Chinese 15-Year Perspective for Hydrogen Peroxide by End-Use Industry - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Sales for Pulp & Paper, Textiles, Environmental, Chemical Synthesis, and Other End-Use Industries for Years 2006, 2014, & 2020 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-69
The chemical compound catalyst market is further segmented into polyolefins, adsorbents, chemical synthesis catalysts and others.
of Tokyo) summarizes the chemical synthesis of over 170 small biofunctional molecules that have been synthesized by his research group in Tokyo since 1959.
One breakthrough he hopes to make is to produce a chemical synthesis without the use of metals - such as lead - which are highly toxic.
At this site, a class 100,000 clean room will be fitted with various chemical synthesis apparatus, including a 200-liter glass-lined reaction vessel.
Today, many new drugs are produced as pure enantiomers from the start because companies have available advanced chemical synthesis and separation techniques.
The buildings include: 350,000 square feet of toxicology, chemical process, chemical synthesis and pilot plant laboratories; 350,000 square feet of executive and general offices; and a 92,000 square foot computer center.
Hydrogen Peroxide in Chemical Synthesis by Geographic Region -
Their topics include the chemical synthesis of acyclic nucleosides, mononucleotide pro-drug synthetic strategies, synthesizing conformally constrained nucleoside analogues, stereoselective methods in synthesizing bioactive oxathiolate and dioxolane nucleosides, and synthetic studies on antifungal peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics.
Rhodia granular salicylic acid grade is a material for active pharmaceutical ingredients, chemical synthesis for antiseptic, fragrance materials or other applications, such as phenolic epoxy resins and corrosion inhibitors.
Since nitrogen plays such a strong role in organic chemistry, a technique that makes the element more available for chemical synthesis offers great practical opportunities, the chemists observe.
GMELIN contains physical, chemical and structural property data; substance identifiers; chemical synthesis and reaction information; and bibliographic data.