an area of the physical chemistry of polymers concerned with the reversible conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy resulting from the conversion of polymer macromolecules from one conformation to another. Any changes in the chemical potential of a medium in which a macromolecule is present causes a change in the conformation of the macromolecule, and, conversely, a change in macromolecular conformation as a result of a mechanical action on the conformation causes a change in the chemical potential of the medium (the teinochemical principle).

The best known manifestation of the teinochemical principle is observed during the swelling of polyelectrolytes: an increase in the degree of ionization of a polyelectrolyte leads to an increase in the size of the macromolecular coil, while a decrease in the degree of ionization leads to a decrease in size. A coil consisting of a polyelectrolyte that swells in water will regularly expand and contract with a periodic change in the water’s pH. It may perform mechanical work upon contraction, which is the basis of the chemical machine, or pH muscle. Such machines, which are designed to demonstrate the teinochemical principle, are capable of lifting a one-ton body.

The applications of the teinochemical principle are not only limited to energetics. Mechanical action on a polymer may alter the polymer’s ion-exchange and electron-exchange properties, reactivity, and catalytic activity.


Entsiklopediiapolimerov, vol. 3. Moscow, 1977.
References in classic literature ?
Once during my clerkship I had an invitation to Crimsworth Hall; it was on the occasion of a large party given in honour of the master's birthday; he had always been accustomed to invite his clerks on similar anniversaries, and could not well pass me over; I was, however, kept strictly in the background.
There was, to be sure, one material objection to the clerkship of Benjamin, which the ingenuity of no one but Richard could have overcome.
The old lady liked her, and offered her her living and six hundred francs a year; but Noemie discovered that she passed her life in her arm-chair and had only two visitors, her confessor and her nephew: the confessor very strict, and the nephew a man of fifty, with a broken nose and a government clerkship of two thousand francs.
Snagsby and touches his hat with the chivalry of clerkship to the ladies on the stairs.
A clerkship at thirty shillings a week was beneath Freddy's dignity, and extremely distasteful to him besides.
My father had got one of those legislative clerkships which used to fall sometimes to deserving country editors when their party was in power, and we together imagined and carried out a scheme for corresponding with some city newspapers.
I'd never get beyond a clerkship, and how could you and I be happy on the paltry earnings of a clerk?
He did not care for that sort of thing, he explained, and he thought a clerkship ashore was good enough for him.
A youth enlightened by gleams by Parisian life soon measures the frightful distance that separates him from the head- clerkship, a distance which no mathematician, neither Archimedes, nor Leibnitz, nor Laplace has ever reckoned, the distance that exists between 0 and the figure 1.
That dress shall therefore be stripped from thee, and thou shalt be cast into the outer world without benefit of clerkship, and without lot or part in the graces and blessings of those who dwell under the care of the Blessed Benedict.
They were all guilty, from young Ardmore, a pink cherub of nineteen outward bound for some clerkship in the Consular Service, to old Captain Bentley, grizzled and sea-worn, and as emotional, to look at, as a Chinese joss.
Morbid timidity and equally morbid religious introspection, aggravated by disappointments in love, prevented him as a young man from accepting a very comfortable clerkship in the House of Lords and drove him into intermittent insanity, which closed more darkly about him in his later years.