Chemoprophylaxis


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chemoprophylaxis

[¦kē·mō‚prō·fə′lak·səs]
(medicine)
Use of drugs to prevent the development of infectious diseases.

Chemoprophylaxis

 

a method of preventing diseases—primarily infectious diseases—by using chemical agents. Primary chemoprophylaxis is the administering of chemical agents to healthy persons likely to become infected in epidemic focuses of cholera or plague and in regions where malaria is prevalent. Chemical agents may also be administered to individuals who come into regular contact with tuberculous patients and to persons engaging in casual sexual relations. Chemoprophylaxis helps to prevent infectious diseases and complications in surgical patients likely to experience suppuration and in patients with low immunity (for example, the administration of antibiotics to those undergoing treatment with cytostatic agents or to debilitated influenza patients to prevent inflammation of the lungs).

Secondary chemoprophylaxis is the use of chemical agents to prevent recurrences of neoplasms (for example, in leukemia or after radical excision of a tumor) and rejection of organs and tissues after transplantation.

References in periodicals archive ?
Through the National Consensus Guidelines for Chemoprophylaxis and Surgical Site Infections we hope to bring all surgeons on the same page.
The 'national consensus guidelines for Chemoprophylaxis and surgical site infections handbook' was launched at an event here, said an announcement.
17-19) In addition we assessed knowledge of leprosy and attitudes to chemoprophylaxis among the subjects by a questionnaire.
12,13Considering these findings, it is imperative that future leprosy control strategy should include chemoprophylaxis and immunoprophylaxis of contacts.
Mass chemoprophylaxis was initiated at home A the day after a second case was reported and at home B after GAS (not iGAS) was confirmed in another resident who had cellulitis (Figure 1).
By 2006, malaria chemoprophylaxis was removed from the OIF force protection plan, but cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria began to accumulate from OEF.
7,9,11,12) Even though data suggests that chemoprophylaxis reduces the incidence of VTE, several national and international organizations, including the American College of Chest Physicians, do not recommend pharmacologic prophylaxis after arthroscopic knee surgery unless the patient has a history of DVT.
7] described the failure of chemoprophylaxis with standard antituberculosis agents in five child contacts of MDR-TB patients.
immitis resistance to macrocyclic lactones, such as ivermectin, for heartworm chemoprophylaxis.
However, the numbers of cases presented in Figures 1 and 2 in the review (76 for chemoprophylaxis and 132 for placebo groups) are leprosy cases in the total population 0-25 years of age, and more than 25 years, thus diluting the effect of the chemoprophylaxis.
Costs associated with mass chemoprophylaxis were based on the guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics.
For groups of fewer than 5,000, one case of meningitis should activate routine public health practices: serogrouping, a case investigation, and chemoprophylaxis for close contacts.