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Use of drugs to prevent the development of infectious diseases.



a method of preventing diseases—primarily infectious diseases—by using chemical agents. Primary chemoprophylaxis is the administering of chemical agents to healthy persons likely to become infected in epidemic focuses of cholera or plague and in regions where malaria is prevalent. Chemical agents may also be administered to individuals who come into regular contact with tuberculous patients and to persons engaging in casual sexual relations. Chemoprophylaxis helps to prevent infectious diseases and complications in surgical patients likely to experience suppuration and in patients with low immunity (for example, the administration of antibiotics to those undergoing treatment with cytostatic agents or to debilitated influenza patients to prevent inflammation of the lungs).

Secondary chemoprophylaxis is the use of chemical agents to prevent recurrences of neoplasms (for example, in leukemia or after radical excision of a tumor) and rejection of organs and tissues after transplantation.

References in periodicals archive ?
When confirmed or suspected outbreaks of influenza occur in institutions that house people at high risk, chemoprophylaxis should be started as early as possible to reduce the spread of the virus.
Population screening and chemoprophylaxis for household contacts of leprosy patients in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.
One 6-week study of oseltamivir chemoprophylaxis among nursing home residents reported a 92% reduction in influenza illness.
authorization as chemoprophylaxis by the French Medicines Agency, primaquine was not used until recently.
In Canada, however, where the study was conducted, guidelines recommend that if a household member has more than 4 hours of contact with the index case in the 7 days prior to onset of illness, then that person should be offered chemoprophylaxis.
For a more detailed description of antiviral management and chemoprophylaxis of influenza, please refer to the National Institute for Communicable Diseases Healthcare Workers Handbook on Influenza.
But the USPSTF also said that clinicians should continue to discuss aspirin chemoprophylaxis in patients who are at increased risk for coronary heart disease, because there is "good evidence" that low-dose (less than 100 mg) aspirin therapy can reduce the risk of heart disease.
In all cases where there was no mention of screening on the birth or labor and delivery records, it was assumed that a risk-based strategy was followed, whereby women were given chemoprophylaxis if they had any risks factors for group B streptococcal (GBS) disease.
Whether or not appropriate chemoprophylaxis is warranted, should be determined by weighing up the risk of contracting malaria against the risk of adverse effects.
He had not received prior chemoprophylaxis or treatment with oseltamivir.
These people can use precautions that range widely in their ability to prevent infection, including personal protection measures, standby emergency treatment, rapid tests for malaria, seasonal chemoprophylaxis, and continuous chemoprophylaxis, said Dr.
Mass chemoprophylaxis against STDs in pregnancy has resulted in reduced preterm births and improved neonatal outcomes in a major new study conducted in Africa.