Chen Duxiu


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Chen Duxiu

or

Ch'en Tu-hsiu

(both: chŭn do͞o-shyo͞o), 1879–1942, Chinese educator and Communist party leader. He was active in the republican revolution of 1911 and was forced to flee to Japan after taking part in the abortive "second revolution" of 1913 against Yüan Shih-kaiYüan Shih-kai
, 1859–1916, president of China (1912–16). From 1885 to 1894 he was the Chinese resident in Korea, then under Chinese suzerainty. He supported the dowager empress, Tz'u Hsi, against the reform movement (1898) of Emperor Kuang Hsü, and she
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. In 1915 he founded the journal New Youth in Shanghai. Articles by Ch'en, Li DazhaoLi Dazhao
, 1888–1927, professor of history and librarian at Beijing Univ., cofounder of the Chinese Communist party with Chen Duxiu. He was the first important Chinese intellectual to support the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.
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, Hu ShihHu Shih
, 1891–1962, Chinese philosopher and essayist, leading liberal intellectual in the May Fourth Movement (1917–23). He studied under John Dewey at Columbia Univ., becoming a lifelong advocate of pragmatic evolutionary change.
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, and others encouraged Chinese youth to create a new culture free from Confucianism. He was dean of the school of arts and sciences of Beijing Univ. from Jan., 1917, until forced to resign under conservative pressure in Mar., 1919. Ch'en was converted to Marxism in the period following the student-led intellectual revolution known as the May Fourth MovementMay Fourth Movement
(1919), first mass movement in modern Chinese history. On May 4, about 5,000 university students in Beijing protested the Versailles Conference (Apr. 28, 1919) awarding Japan the former German leasehold of Kiaochow (Jiaozhou), Shandong prov.
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 (1919). He founded (1920) two Marxist groups, and in 1921 representatives of these groups met with representatives of groups organized by Li Dazhao (neither Chen nor Li were present) to found the Communist party. He was dismissed from party leadership and withdrew from the party in 1927 over his opposition to the CominternComintern
[acronym for Communist International], name given to the Third International, founded at Moscow in 1919. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin feared a resurgence of the Second, or Socialist, International under non-Communist leadership.
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-ordered policy of armed insurrection.
References in periodicals archive ?
Chen Duxiu (1879-1942), a leading figure of the May 4th Movement, a non-Christian, and one of the founders of Chinese Communist Party in 1925, who published the influential Xin Qingnian (New Youth) magazine in disseminating new and critical ideas from the West, ponders on the strange relationship between Christianity and China.
Chen Duxiu was credited with being the first Chinese intellectual to advocate the anticipated revolution to be brought about by democracy and science.
Chen Duxiu claims that the Chinese will be profoundly enlightened and invigorated if they have in their blood "the noble and great personality of Jesus, as well as his burning, profound emotions.
1921 Revolutionaries Mao Zedong and Chen Duxiu secretly meet in Shanghai and establish the Communist Party of China.
Tao's article in the January 15 issue of Xin qingnian is followed by a short and less analytical article by Chen Duxiu ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), entitled "Some Thoughts on the Suicide of Liang Juchuan" ("Duiyu Liang Juchuan xiansheng zisha zhi ganxiang"[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]).
From the last days of the emperors Guang[xu] and Xuan[tong] the new speech labels the emperor and kings as slaves, and those who simply receive their wages blindly follow them and forget their own life stories (Liang Ji quoted in Chen Duxiu 1919: 19).
Morality and the position of the individual in relation to society are precisely the points in Tao Menghe's article that Liang Ji's son Liang Shuming raises in his open letter to Chen Duxiu and Tao Menghe in the April edition of Xin qingnian.
The author examines the origins of the "literary revolution" proclaimed in 1917 by Hu Shi (1891-1962), Chen Duxiu (1879-1942), and others in the new culture magazine Zin Quingnian, an event which Kaske considers the beginning of the promotion and elaboration of the vernacular written language by leading intellectuals, and a milestone in the development of the modern Chinese standard language.
For instance, the former residences and tombs of Li Hongzhang, Hu Shi, Chen Duxiu, Qu Qiubai and many others were built and destroyed because the view of them changed.
This school of thought was conservative in that it directly opposed the New Cultural Movement (xin wenhua yundong) led by such famous thinkers as Hu Shi (1891-1962), Chen Duxiu (1879-1942), Li Dazhao (1889-1927), and Lu Xun (1881-1936).
In his famous article On Literary Revolution (Wenxue Geming Lun), which exemplified the view of the New Intellectuals on literary reform, Chen Duxiu cried, "Down with the ornate, sycophantic literature of the aristocracy; up with the plain, expressive literature of the people
Chen Duxiu, "On Literary Revolution" (Wenxue Geming Lun), New Youth (Xin Qingnian), vol.