Cheng Ho

Cheng Ho

or

Zheng He

(both: jŭng` ho͝o`), 1371–c.1433, admiral, diplomat, and explorer during China's MingMing
, dynasty of China that ruled from 1368 to 1644. The first Ming emperor, Chu Yüan-chang (ruled 1368–98), a former Buddhist monk, joined a rebellion in progress, gained control of it, overthrew the Mongol Yüan dynasty, and unified all of China proper.
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 dynasty. At 10 he was captured by Chinese troops in Yunnan, castrated, and sent into the army. He rose in the ranks, became an officer, and in 1404 was named Grand Eunuch by Emperor Yung-loYung-lo
, 1359–1424, reign title of the 3d emperor (1403–24) of the Chinese Ming dynasty, whose personal name was Chu Ti. He rose to power in N China after being delegated by his father, the Ming founding emperor Hung Wu (reigned 1368–98), to lead the fight
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. The following year the emperor selected him to lead the first of seven epic expeditions (1405–33) that served to expand Chinese political influence and increase its tribute and trade. Sailing to SE Asia (1405–07), he commanded 62 ships laden with porcelain, lacquer, silk, gems, and other luxury goods. Subsequently commanding treasure fleets ranging from about 50 to more than 100 vessels, some of which were 500 ft (153 m) long, he also later sailed to India, Sri Lanka, Arabia, E Africa, and Egypt. On his fourth voyage (1413–15), Cheng returned with envoys from 30 foreign states who rendered homage to the emperor and sailed home on his sixth voyage (1421–23). Although China returned to an isolationist policy after the emperor's death (1424), Cheng made one last voyage (1431–33). A controversial theory posits that Cheng discovered the New World during his 1420s voyage, some 70 years before Columbus.

Bibliography

See L. Levathes, When China Ruled the Seas (1994); G. Menzies, 1421: The Year China Discovered America (2003).

Cheng Ho

 

Born 1371; died circa 1434. Chinese traveler, naval commander, and diplomat.

Cheng Ho led military and commercial maritime expeditions (1405–07, 1407–09, 1409–11, 1413–15, 1417–19, 1421–22, and 1431–33) to Indochina, Hindustan, the Arabian Peninsula, and East Africa.

REFERENCES

Bokshchanin, A. A. Kitai i strany iuzhnykh morei v XIV–XVI vv. Moscow, 1968.
Svet, Ia. M. Za kormo isto tysiach li. Moscow, I960.
References in periodicals archive ?
Emperor Yongle, who started construction of China's Forbidden City, was interested in political and trade missions to the lands that ring the Indian Ocean and sent Admiral Zheng He, also known as Cheng Ho, to explore those shores.
The 4th World Peace Forum (WPF) was organized in Bogor by the Indonesian Muhammadiyah movement, a loose social organization which claims more than 40 million members, the Cheng Ho Multi Culture Education Trust of Malaysia and the Centre for Dialogue and Cooperation Among Civilizations (CDCC).
Junior tailback Cheng Ho, who rushed for 722 yards and seven TDs last year, leads the ground game.
At around the time that the Chinese Emperor, Cheng Ho, was receiving a giraffe at the gates of his inner palace in Beijing, the gift of the King of Malindi of East Africa, a young prince was leading an attack on Ceuta on the North African coast.
Official promotion of the T'ien-fei cult was particularly important in the days of Cheng Ho.