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, Ger. Czernowitz, Romanian Cernauţi, Rus. Chernovtsy, city (1989 pop. 257,000), capital of Chernivtsi region, SW Ukraine, on the Prut River and in the Carpathian foothills.
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(until 1944, Chernovitsy), a city and administrative center of Chernovtsy Oblast, Ukrainian SSR. Population, 214,000 (1977; 106,000 in 1939,152,000 in 1959,187,000 in 1970). Situated in the foothills of the Carpathians on the Prut River, Chernovtsy is a railroad and highway junction and also has an airport. It is divided into three city raions.
According to archaeological data, Chernovtsy originated in the 12th century. It first appears in written sources dating from 1408. From the mid-14th century to 1774 it was part of the Principality of Moldavia. In 1775 it came under the rule of Austria (from 1867, Austria-Hungary). During the offensive of the Southwestern Front of 1916, Chernovtsy was captured by Russian troops. In November 1918 it was occupied by Rumania. In June 1940, Chernovtsy, together with northern Bucovina, became part of the USSR and the administrative center of an oblast of the Ukrainian SSR. From July 6,1941, to Mar. 29,1944, it was occupied by fascist German troops.
The leading branches of industry in Chernovtsy are light industry, food processing, and machine building. Light industry is represented by the Voskhod cotton production association, the Trembita garment production association, a glove and knitwear production association, a hosiery production association, and factories for the production of shoes, textiles, notions and clothing accessories, and decorative textile goods. The food-processing industry is represented by a meat-packing combine and combines for the production of oils and fats, sugar, and other foodstuffs. The machine-building industry is represented by a machine-building plant, the Elektronmash and Chernovtsylegmash production associations, and a machinery repair plant. Other industries include the wood-products industry, represented by furniture and woodworking combines and a furniture factory, and the chemical industry, represented by rubber-footwear and chemical plants and a plant for the production of household chemicals. The building-materials industry is also important.
Noteworthy architectural works include the wooden churches dating from the 17th and 18th centuries—the Church of St. Nicholas (1607), the Piatnitskaia Church (1768), the Trinity Church on the Klokuchka (1774), and the Uspenie Church on the Kali-chanka (1783)—and the buildings in the classical style, such as the town hall (now the city soviet; 1843; architect A. Mikulich) and the former residence of the metropolitan (now the university; 1864–82; architect I. Glavka). During the Soviet period, work has been conducted on improving the planning and construction of apartment-house blocks. Monuments include the Victory Monument (1946; sculptor G. L. Petrashevich, architect V. I. Grigor).
Chernovtsy has a university, a medical institute, a branch of the Kiev Institute of Commerce and Economics, and 12 specialized secondary educational institutions, including industrial, textile, construction, railroad transportation, and other technicums, as well as pedagogical, medical, cultural-educational, and music schools. There is a musical and dramatic theater and a philharmonic society in the city. Museums include a museum of local lore and the O. Iu. Kobylianskaia and the O. Fed’kovich literary memorial museums. Chernovtsy also has a television center.
REFERENCESKhokhol, Iu. F., and Iu. S. Koval’ov. Chernivtsi, Istoryko-arkhitekturnyi narys. Kiev, 1966.
Kolodiy, V. D. Chernivtsi: Putivnyk po mistu. Uzhgorod, 1967.
Chernivtsi. Kiev, 1971.
Istoriia mist i sil Ukrains’koi RSR: Chernivets’ka oblast’. Kiev, 1969.
P. V. MIKHAILINA, A. S. ROMANETS, and S. K. KILESSO