Cheti

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Cheti

 

(also chetverti, chetvertnye prikazy), institutions of the central government in Russia in the second half of the 16th and in the 17th century that fulfilled financial, administrative, and judicial functions involving the part of the population subject to the tiaglo (system of state duties) in certain regions of the country.

First mentioned in 1561 and 1562, the cheti were created after the abolition of kormlenie (system of local administration). In the early 17th century cheti were organized for the collection of direct and indirect taxes from the population in designated areas; an exception was the Novaia Chetvert’. The Novgorod Chetvert’ (Nizhegorodskaia Chetvert’) had jurisdiction over Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod, Pskov, Vologda, Arkhangel’sk, and their districts. The Vladimir Chetvert’ dealt with Vladimir, Tver’, Tula, Orel, and their districts. The Kostroma Chetvert’ (Yaroslavl Chetvert’) handled Kostroma, Yaroslavl, Murom, and their districts. The Galich Chetvert’ had authority over Galich, Belooze-ro, Shuia, and their districts. The Ustiug Chetvert’ dealt with Velikii Ustiug, Sol’vychegodsk, and their districts.

Part of the chetvert’ revenues went to the prikazy (government offices); the rest was used to pay the salaries of the upper ranks of the sluzhilye liudi (civil service class), including the elite of the provincial nobility, known as the chetvertchiki. In the 1670’s and 1680’s the cheti declined in importance, as the Novgorod, Vladimir, Galich, and Ustiug chetverti were made subordinate to the Posol’skii Prikaz (Foreign Office), the Kostroma Chetvert’ was subordinated to the Streletskii Prikaz (Musketeers’ Prikaz), and virtually all tax-collecting responsibilities were transferred to other institutions.

In 1683 and 1684 the cheti were to some degree reactivated when they regained the prerogative of collecting most of their former taxes, except for customs duties and taxes on liquor; shortly thereafter the cheti and the prikazy to which they belonged were abolished when the government was reorganized at the beginning of the 18th century.

REFERENCES

Stashevskii, E. D. K voprosu o torn, kogda i pochemu voznikli “cheti”? Kiev, 1908.
Sadikov, P. A. Ocherki po istorii oprichniny. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
Nosov, N. E. Stanovlenie soslovno-predstavitel’nykh uchrezhdenii v Rossii: Izyskaniia o Zemskoi reforme Ivana Groznogo. Leningrad, 1969.
References in periodicals archive ?
The fact that the historical drivers of changes to oil prices no longer apply certainly make a compelling case for African economies planning for a post-oil future," says Manji Cheto, senior vice president at Teneo Intelligence.
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com/four-issues-christine-lagarde-nigeria-agenda-411912) are a little bit optimistic ," Manji Cheto, vice president of political risk analysts Teneo Intelligence, told Newsweek earlier this month.
What the Nigerian military has been weak at doing, and I think the Boko Haram insurgency has exposed this, is dealing with asymmetrical war," said Manji Cheto, vice president of Teneo Intelligence, a risk analysis organisation in London.
En Buenos Aires podemos observar una dicotomia de categorias socio-espaciales: el cheto y el negro.
Puerta Maraven Posada Restaurant Mi Calle Papelon, entre Cheto Ollarvides y General Pelayo.
Pure, se io vi potessi parlare, non potre' fare che io non vi empiessi il capo di castellucci, perche la Fortuna ha fatto che, non sapendo ragionare ne dell'arte della seta et dell'arte della lana, ne de' guadagni ne delle perdite, e' mi conviene ragionare dello stato, et mi bisogna o botarmi di stare cheto, o ragionare di questo.
197-208 [Ma queste cose / Sian tali o no: predominante in Cielo / Il Sol sovra la Terra erga il suo corso, / O la Terra su l' Sole; Egli dall'Orto / Cominci la fiammante sua carriera; / O dall'Occaso Ella il suo corso tacito / Avanzi a cheto inoffensivopasso / Che dolce sovra il molle Asse suo sdruccioli, / Mentr'ella move equilibrata e porta / Te agiatamente una con l'aria cheta; / Deh non ponga in affanno i tuoi pensieri / Entro ascose materie] in cui Rolli di nuovo mantiene la costruzione dell'originale di Milton (vv.
Por el contrario, ahora sus lideres estan plenamente identificados: son los hermanos Eugenio Jesus Diaz Parada, Don Chuy, y Domingo Aniceto Diaz, Don Cheto.
Caerleon inflicted another defeat on Maesteg Park who went down 2-0, the goals coming from Simon Trueman and Luke Cheto.
Luego, se incorporan expresiones como: "El que no salta es un cheto .