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in Rus’ and Russia:
(1) A land measure equal to one-half of a desiatina. It was mentioned as early as the late 15th century and was in official use until 1766. Depending on the size of the desiatina, the chetvert’ amounted to 1,200,1,600, or 1,250 square sazheni.
(2) A dry measure, used principally for grain, groats, and flour. In certain Russian principalities and states in the 14th and 15th centuries, a chetvert’ was equal to one-fourth of a kad’ (or okov) with varying weights. The official chetvert’ in the 16th and early 17th centuries was equal to 4 poods of rye grain (1 pood equals approximately 16.38 kg), then to 6 poods, and, beginning in the last quarter of the 17th century, to 8 poods. In several regions, local chetverti of various volumes were known in the 17th century. The unit went out of practical use in the mid-18th century.
(3) A liquid measure equal to one-fourth of a vedro (bucket). It was first used in the 16th or 17th century. In 1885 the volume of a chetvert’ was defined as 3.0748 liters. It was used chiefly in the sale of wine and liquor and was equal to 5 vodka butylki (bottles) or 4 wine butylki.
(4) In the 17th century the chetvert’ was sometimes used as a measure of weight for certain commodities; for example, 1 chetvert’ of wax was equal to 12 poods.
(5) A measure of length used in the 16th and 17th centuries, equal to one-quarter of a sazhen’ or, later, one-quarter of an arshin. The latter dimension (about 18 cm) was used in rural areas until the October Revolution of 1917.
REFERENCESKamentseva, E. I., and N. V. Ustiugov, Russkaia metrologiia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1975.
Romanova, G. Ia. Naimenovanie mer dliny v russkom iazyke. Moscow, 1975.