Hebei

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Hebei

or

Hopei

(both: ho͝o-bā), province (2010 pop. 71,854.202), 78,900 sq mi (204,404 sq km), NE China, on the Bohai, an arm of the Yellow Sea. The capital is ShijiazhuangShijiazhuang
or Shih-chia-chuang
, city (1994 est. pop. 1,159,400), capital of Hebei prov., China, near the Shanxi province border. A small village until the turn of the century, when it became a railroad junction, it is now at the intersection of north-south and
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. The province contains two autonomous municipalities administered directly by the central government: BeijingBeijing
or Peking
, city and independent municipality (2010 pop. 19,612,368), capital of the People's Republic of China. It is in central Hebei prov., but constitutes an independent unit (6,564 sq mi/17,000 sq km) administered directly by the national government.
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, the capital of China, and TianjinTianjin
or Tientsin
, city and independent municipality (2010 pop. 12,938,224), NE China. In E central Hebei prov., it is a politically independent unit (4,400 sq mi/11,399 sq km) administered directly by the central government.
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, a major port. Another large port on the relatively unindented coast line is QinhuangdaoQinhuangdao
or Chinwangtao
, city (1994 est. pop. 412,500), NE Hebei prov., China, on the Bohai, an arm of the Yellow Sea. It is an ice-free port that exports large quantities of coal, peanuts, and soybeans.
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. Other important cities are TangshanTangshan
, city (1994 est. pop. 1,110,200), NE Hebei prov., China. A coal-mining center in the Kailan basin, Tangshan is also a major industrial hub with iron- and steelworks. It was completely destroyed by a massive earthquake on July 28, 1976.
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 and BaodingBaoding
or Paoting
, city (1994 est. pop. 519,200), central Hebei prov., China. It is a port on the Fu River and an agricultural distribution center, with food-processing and variety of other light industries. Baoding was the capital of Zhili prov. and then Hebei prov.
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. Hebei is mountainous in the north and the west, where rich iron and coal deposits are extensively mined. The province also has extensive deposits of oil and natural gas. S Hebei is part of the North China Plain. The land is fertile and rainfall is adequate, but until water conservation programs were instituted, the province was subject to severe drought and flooding. These recent improvements, along with the enlargement of farms and the expansion of mechanization, have greatly increased agricultural output. Hebei is a major cotton-producing province and an important producer of wheat. Other crops include rice, millet, sorghum, potatoes, sweet potatoes, barley, corn, soybeans, and fruit. Stock raising is important, and fishing and salt production are significant along the coast. Heavy industry (mainly metallurgical, iron and steel, machinery, and textile) is concentrated in and around Beijing, Tianjin, and Tangshan. Many light manufactures, such as ceramics, paper, and processed foods, are also produced in the province. With many good roads and railroad systems centering on Beijing, Tianjin, and Shijiazhuang, and with the Grand Canal and other excellent waterways, Hebei has one of the best communications systems in China. One of the earliest regions of Chinese settlement, Hebei has many prehistoric sites. Parts of the former provinces of Jehol and Chahar were incorporated into Hebei in 1956. The province was formerly called Chi and Chihli. Hebei Univ. is in Tianjin.

Hebei

, Hopeh, Hopei
a province of NE China, on the Gulf of Chihli: important for the production of winter wheat, cotton, and coal. Capital: Shijiazhuang. Pop.: 67 690 000 (2003 est.). Area: 202 700 sq. km (79 053 sq. miles)