Like its twin sister chiasmos, antimetabole can be used to suggest ironic reversal; it challenges and, therefore, compels us to reconsider causal relationships:
The exemplifications in other rhetorical catalogues demonstrate that Carlin is only one of the latest in a long line of linguistic wits who employed antimetabole and chiasmos, including Moliere, Johnson, Dryden, Pope, Bierce, and Macaulay.
CHIASMOS (sometimes spelled "chiasmus"): reversing the arrangement of subject and complement in successive clauses (AB:BA):
While some rhetors make no distinction between antimetabole and chiasmos, I would insist on differentiating: in antimetabole the exact same two words are reversed in order:
In chiasmos the words reversed are not entirely the same and up to four different words or phrases can be used:
In chiasmos it is not the words so much as the order of the parts of speech that reverse--above: noun, adjective; adjective, (pro)noun.
Quinn provides another distinction between antimetabole and chiasmos, suggesting that larger groups of words can constitute chiasmos: not just sentences, but entire paragraphs, even entire books, can be arranged with the first half reversed in the second half, as if each half is a mirror image of the other (95).