Chibcha


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Chibcha

(chĭb`chə), indigenous people of the eastern cordillera of the Andes of Colombia. Although trade with neighboring tribes was common, the Chibcha seem to have evolved their culture in comparative isolation. They were the most highly developed of the Colombians, practicing agriculture, melting and casting gold and copper ornaments, mining emeralds, weaving textiles, and making pottery. They evolved a stratified society of overlords and vassals, in which succession to office was matrilineal and inheritance of personal property was patrilineal. Among the commoners, or farmers, organization was patrilineal. The priesthood constituted a hereditary noble class. Religious ceremonies included human sacrifice. The source of the legend of El Dorado is attributed to them, probably because of a Chibcha ceremony, also partly legendary, in which a new ruler was covered with gold dust each year, and then washed in a sacred lake. The Chibcha were conquered by the Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de QuesadaJiménez de Quesada, Gonzalo
, c.1499–1579, Spanish conquistador in Colombia. Chief magistrate of Santa Marta, he was commissioned to explore the Magdalena in search of El Dorado.
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 between 1536 and 1541. The Chibcha languages, a separate language family, are spoken in Colombia and spread northward to other areas. Surviving Chibcha-speaking tribes, such as the Cuna and Lenca of Central America, have experienced much culture change since the Spanish conquest.

Chibcha

 

(Muisca), a group of South American Indian tribes of the Chibchan language family; creators of an advanced ancient civilization in South America.

The Chibcha lived in the high valleys in the Cordillera Oriental in present-day Colombia. The basic economy was terrace farming (potatoes, corn, beans, squash); weaving and the making of pottery and jewelry were well developed. Their religion consisted of nature and ancestor worship. Several early class states (Bogotá, Tunja, Sogamoso), headed by supreme rulers, existed among the Chibcha at the time of the Spanish conquest (1536). Lack of coordination among these states and constant civil strife prevented the Chibcha from putting up serious resistance to the Spanish conquerors, who occupied the entire country in 153641. The descendants of the Chibcha have blended into the present-day mixed population of Colombia.

REFERENCES

Sozina, S. A. Muiski—eshche odna tsivilizatsiia drevnei Ameriki. Moscow, 1969.
Sozina, S. A. Na gorizonte—EI’doradol Moscow, 1972.
References in periodicals archive ?
Romulo Rozo, an artist from the region of Boyaca, sculpted this indigenous goddess and gave his work the title Bachue, diosa generatriz de los indios chibchas (Medina 1994, 36).
The tales of the Chibcha Indians rolling their chiefs, once a year, in gold dust had given birth to the legend of El Dorado -- the mythical land of gold and jewels.
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There was better luck for connections of the runner-up in the fillies' handicap when Chibcha overcame a slow start to come with what proved to be a perfectly timed challenge under Chris Hayes to beat Dash Back by a head.
Among the chief candidates are the Lenca, a group generally considered to be Mesoamerican, and the Pech (Paya), whose language is related to the Chibcha linguistic family of South America.
Chibcha, a 14-1 shot who paid over 29-1 on the Tote, came from behind under Chris Hayes to take the 6f two-year-old median auction maiden.
Known as iomza in Colombia's Chibcha language, poni in Patagonia's Araucanian, and amka and choque in the Bolivian altiplano's Aymara, the cultivated potato spread across the continent to its northern and southern extremities.
During the pre-Columbian period, the area now known as Colombia was inhabited by indigenous societies situated at different stages of socio-economic development, ranging from hunters and nomadic farmers to the highly structured Chibchas, who are considered to have been one of the most developed indigenous groups in South America.
But actual seventeenth-century Amerindian and Black resistance to the labor draft was far from disorganized or ineffective: Muisca Chibchas in the eastern highlands of New Granada protested Spanish social control on a community-wide scale; escaped African slaves organized themselves into well-defended palenques from which they mounted raids on Creole plantations to gain recruits (Safford and Palacios 50); and Pijao Indians carried out devastating attacks on Spanish towns that forced them to move or cease to exist (36).
en Nueva York se habian dado cita todos los Lopez y Cabanillas del mundo, asiaticos, aztecas, africanos, ibericos, mayas, chibchas, sicilianos, caribenos, musulmanes, quechuas, polinesios, esquimales, ejemplares de toda procedencia, lengua, raza y pigmentacion y que tenian solo en comun el querer vivir como un yanqui, despues de haberle cedido su alma y haber intentado usurpar su apariencia.
For the second edition of the contest, the participation has been limited to the following Latin-American ethnic groups: Mayas, Tainos, Caribes, Chibchas, Quechuas y Tupi-Guarani.