4) is identified as being filled by speakers of Mobe, Doraske, and Bokota (in the west) and Kuna (in the east), all Chibchan languages.
Comparative evidence is such that a word for coconut is not reconstructable for any chronological stages of Chibchan and Choco language families, including those closest to the time of the European conquest.
Twelve terms for coconut, presented in original orthography, were extracted from lexical sources available to us for Chibchan and Choco languages (Table 1).
Papers discuss unidirectionality of grammaticalization in an evolutionary perspective, grammaticalization of Korean numeral classifiers, the grammaticalization of the German preposition von as a genitive equivalent, the grammaticalization of agreement in Chibchan
, a grammaticalization perspective on decay and loss of applicatives in Siouan languages, the semantic diversity of generalized action verbs, predicting future change of relative clauses of Japanese, the catalytic function of constructional restrictions in grammaticalization, grammaticalization of periphrastic constructions, grammaticalization of honorific constructions in Japanese, and other topics.
reported, noneyewitness, inferred) can take on epistemic meanings, implying doubt on the part of the speaker as to the truth of the information they present (as in the Chibchan
language Guaymi, for example, 1994: 203).
The first race is an interesting seven-furlong maiden in which the new Godolphin trainer Mahood Al Zarooni is doublehanded with Chibchan
and Old Possum.
Outside Eurasia ergative systems are found in Tsimshian (British Columbia), Chinook (Oregon), Sahaptin, and Nez Perce (northwest USA), in the Mayan languages of Central America, and in the Je, Arawak, Tupi-Guarani, Panoan, Tacanan, Chibchan
, Maku, and Carib families of South America, plus the isolates Trumai and Jabuti (Dixon 1994: 5).