child welfare

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child welfare,

services provided for the care of disadvantaged children. Foundling institutions for orphans and abandoned children were the earliest attempts at child care, usually under religious auspices. At first the goal was to provide minimum physical subsistence, but services have been expanded to include social and psychological help. In the late 18th cent., a movement developed around the idea that children should not simply be regarded as small adults, and such educators as Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel were discussing children's special needs at the same time that the Industrial Revolution intensified the nonagricultural exploitation of child laborchild labor,
use of the young as workers in factories, farms, and mines. Child labor was first recognized as a social problem with the introduction of the factory system in late 18th-century Great Britain.
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. In the 19th cent. many religious and private institutions were organized to take care of children who were orphaned, destitute, or handicapped. In child-welfare legislation, the British Children's Charter Act of 1908 and the Ohio Children's Code Commission of 1911 marked a new era. The idea that it was the responsibility of the community to provide children with the advantages that their parents could not supply is a 20th-century development. In this category are free school lunches; medical, dental, and psychiatric services and child guidance clinics in schools; playgrounds; children's courts; special schools for handicapped children; and care in foster families for children of broken homes. Infant and child clinics are often provided by municipalities. Many social welfaresocial welfare
or public charity,
organized provision of educational, cultural, medical, and financial assistance to the needy. Modern social welfare measures may include any of the following: the care of destitute adults; the treatment of the mentally ill; the
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 agencies finance summer camps for both healthy and handicapped children. In the United States child welfare services are administered through the Administration for Children and Families within the U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. A series of new child welfare programs were passed by Congress in the 1960s. These included the Child Nutrition Act, the Head Start Program, and the Foster Grandparent Program. The International Union for Child Welfare (1920) organized relief for child victims of major international and national disasters. The United Nations Children's FundUnited Nations Children's Fund
(UNICEF), a specialized fund of the United Nations. It was established in 1946 as the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, and became a permanent part of the United Nations in 1953, when it acquired its current name (but retained
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 (UNICEF, 1946) targets malnutrition and helps reestablish children's services destroyed in war. Current child welfare concerns include child abusechild abuse,
physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment or neglect of children by parents, guardians, or others responsible for a child's welfare. Physical abuse is characterized by physical injury, usually inflicted as a result of a beating or inappropriately harsh discipline.
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 and child care (see day nurseryday nursery,
 day-care center,
or crèche
, institution for the care of the children of working parents. Originating in Europe in the late 18th and early 19th cent.
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See J. Packman, Child Care Needs and Numbers (1968); D. Zietz, Child Welfare (2d ed. 1969); L. Costin, Child Welfare (new ed. 1972); A. Kahn and S. Kamerman, Social Services in International Perspective (1980), Helping America's Families (1982), and Child Support (1987); V. Zelizer, Pricing the Priceless Child (1985); A. Kadushin and J. A. Martin, Child Welfare Services (4th ed. 1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
Transparency : This project aims to improve the quality, predictability and accountability of child protection responses in humanitarian situations by contributing to the 2015-2016 Minimum Standards for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action's work plan.
Sahil has been working for the last 20 years on child protection especially against child abuse.
Saba Sadiq, Chairperson Punjab Child Protection Bureau said since inception of this department in 2005, 35,000 children had been rehabilitated, adding, the bureau is running rehabilitation centers in six districts and currently 700 children are admitted in these centers.
Al-Khamesi confirmed that the local council leaders play a vital role in defending and protecting the children, saying, "Due to the privileges that local council members have [such as the right to intervene in child abuse cases], it appears that the child protection unit will be effective.
And Claude Knights, from child protection charity Kidscape, said she was deeply concerned by what she considered to be a "dilution" of the child protection strategy.
This would mean that social workers could set their own timescales for carrying out some assessments and child protection conferences.
The commission will also be entitled to provide technical and other support in the interest of children and it will monitor the implementation and violation of laws related to child protection besides it will also establish, manage and control child protection units, he added.
Organisers hope the recommendations and laws put forward will help encourage MPs and Shura Council members to adopt tougher child protection measures.
Only about half of staff (54 per cent) in each NHS trust who should be trained in child protection have up-to-date training, it said.
There are significant opportunities for developing child protection social work in Aotearoa / New Zealand.
Major General Dr Nasser Lakhrebani Al Nuaimi, Secretary-General of the Office of Deputy Prime Minister and Minster of Interior and Chairman of the Higher Committee for Child Protection at the Ministry of Interior, chaired the meeting during which he highlighted the importance of protecting children and the policies put in place by the ministry that have contributed towards child protection.
Abu Dhabi: The Higher Committee for Child Protection at the Ministry of Interior recently organised a specialised workshop to discuss the policy to protect children against abuse and neglect.

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