Chin


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Chin,

dynasty of China (265–420): see TsinTsin
or Chin
, dynasty of China that ruled from 265 to 420, after the period of the Three Kingdoms. It was divided into two phases: the Western Tsin (265–317) and the Eastern Tsin (317–420).
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Chin

 

a kingdom in ancient China from the 11th to fourth centuries B.C., located in what is now Shansi Province. From 632 to 546, Chin was one of the most powerful of the ancient Chinese kingdoms, and its ruler held the title of hegemon (pa). In the fifth century Chin was weakened by internecine struggles among the noble houses. As a result, it disintegrated into the three domains (subsequently kingdoms) Chao, Wei, and Han. Chin nominally continued to exist, however, until 369 B.C., when these kingdoms formally replaced it.


Chin

 

a state and dynasty of the Jurchens, who inhabited what is now Northeast China; in existence from 1115 to 1234.

The Chin state arose during a struggle between the Jurchens and the Khitans. The Khitan state, to which the Jurchens had been paying tribute, was destroyed in 1125 when Chin captured its territory. From 1125 to 1127, Chin fought the Northern Sung Dynasty, from which it captured a large part of North China, including K’aifeng, the capital of the empire. The Chin troops seized territory as far south as the Yangtze River.

In 1139, Chin signed a peace treaty with the state of the Southern Sung Dynasty, which, in accordance with the treaty, acknowledged its vassalage to Chin. By the mid-12th century, Chin had become a powerful Eastern Asian state, comprising the territory of what is now Northeast and North China and part of Inner Mongolia. In addition to the Southern Sung state, which paid tribute to Chin, Korea and the Tangut state of Hsi Hsia acknowledged their vassalage to Chin.

The Chin state was primarily based on the feudal mode of production, but slaveholding also played an important role. Chin was destroyed by Mongol invaders.

REFERENCE

Istoriia Kitaia s drevneishikh vremen do nashikh dnei. Moscow, 1974.

L. I. DUMAN


Ch’in

 

an imperial dynasty in China from 221 B.C. to 207 B.C. The dynasty was founded by Shih Huang Ti and its capital was Hsienyang.

During the period of Ch’in rule, the first centralized state in Chinese history was established, and the country was subdivided into 36 provinces, governed by officials who were appointed by the emperor. The state ideology was Legism (seeFA-CHIA). Under the Ch’in Dynasty, the tax burden on the people was intensified as a result of continual wars in the northern and southern parts of the country and the construction of the Great Wall and numerous palaces. A series of popular uprisings broke out in late 209 and early 208; the leaders of these uprisings included Ch’en Sheng, Wu Kuang, and Liu Pang. After Liu Pang’s army captured Hsienyang, the Ch’in Dynasty came to an end.

REFERENCE

Perelomov, L. S. Imperiia Tsin’—pervoe tsentralizovannoe gosudarstvo v Kitae. Moscow, 1962.

Ch’in

 

an ancient Chinese kingdom that arose circa the tenth century B.C.; initially dependent on the Chou Dynasty. The territory of Ch’in comprised what is now the western and northwestern part of Shansi Province, the eastern part of Kansu Province, and the northern part of Szechwan Province. During the Chan Kuo period (fifth to third centuries B.C.), Ch’in was one of the seven most powerful states in China; these states were independent of the Chou monarchy. Ch’in was strengthened as a result of the reforms of Shang Yang. Over a period beginning in the mid-fourth century B.C. the kingdom warred with the other Chinese states; by 221 B.C. it had established its supremacy, thus forming the centralized Ch’in Empire.


Chin

 

a national administrative division in Burma, in the mountainous northwestern section of the country. Area, 33,000 sq km. Population, 354,000 (1969). The district is inhabited primarily by people of the Chin nationality. Falam is the principal city. Agriculture and logging are the basis of the economy.

chin

[chin]
(anatomy)
The lower part of the face, at or near the symphysis of the lower jaw.

chin

chin
A part of an aircraft structure that sticks out from the region under the aircraft nose. Examples include chin intake, chin blister, and chin radome. Some military aircraft have chin turrets.

chin

1. the protruding part of the lower jaw
2. the front part of the face below the lips
References in classic literature ?
The child came up, and the master patted the curly head, and chucked him under the chin.
He raised his chin and looked us slowly over, in a listless dull way, blinking with the distress of the torchlight, then dropped his head and fell to muttering again and took no further notice of us.
She rested her elbow on her knee and her chin on her hand and took that problem under deep consideration.
They were bareheaded; their eyes were protected by iron goggles which projected an inch or more, the leather straps of which bound their ears flat against their heads were wound around and around with thick wrappings which a sword could not cut through; from chin to ankle they were padded thoroughly against injury; their arms were bandaged and rebandaged, layer upon layer, until they looked like solid black logs.
I says look at my hat -- if you call it a hat -- but the lid raises up and the rest of it goes down till it's below my chin, and then it ain't rightly a hat at all, but more like my head was shoved up through a jint o' stove- pipe.
But when he emerged from the towel, he was not yet satisfactory, for the clean territory stopped short at his chin and his jaws, like a mask; below and beyond this line there was a dark expanse of unirrigated soil that spread downward in front and backward around his neck.
His cheeks and chin were in the bluest bloom of smooth shaving; his nose was short Roman; his lips long, thin, and supple, curled up at the corners with a mildly-humorous smile.
Omer, after rubbing his chin again, and smoking a little, 'what I mean in a general way by the expression, "A long pull, and a strong pull, and a pull altogether, my hearties, hurrah
There were the two watchmen, sure enough: red-cap on his back, as stiff as a handspike, with his arms stretched out like those of a crucifix and his teeth showing through his open lips; Israel Hands propped against the bulwarks, his chin on his chest, his hands lying open before him on the deck, his face as white, under its tan, as a tallow candle.
Her chin was pressed so closely against her foot, that there was hardly room to open her mouth; but she did it at last, and managed to swallow a morsel of the lefthand bit.
and four little boy pigs, called Alexander, Pigling Bland, Chin- chin and Stumpy.
His face was a fair weakness, his chin retreated, and his hair lay in crisp, almost flaxen curls on his low forehead; his eyes were rather large, pale blue, and blankly staring.