Chinese Changchun Railway

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Chinese Ch’angch’un Railway

 

(until 1945, the Chinese Eastern Railway; after 1953, the Harbin Railway), major rail line in northeast China, from the Manchurian frontier station (Manchouli) through Harbin to Suifenho and from Harbin to Dairen (Dalny), with the following branch lines: Liaoyang-Pench’i, Suchiat’un-Fushun, Tashihch’iao-Yingk’ou, Ch’in-chou-Ch’entsut’ung, and Choushuitsu-Lüshun (Port Arthur).

The railway was built by Russia between 1897 and 1903 under the Sino-Russian Treaty of 1896; it was named the Chinese Eastern Railway. After the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05 the southern section of the railway, from K’uangch’engtsu (Ch’angch’un) to Port Arthur, went to Japan by the Treaty of Portsmouth of 1905. This section was called the South Manchurian Railway. In 1918, Japan sent troops into the zone belonging to the Chinese Eastern Railway and in 1920 tried to take possession of it. At the Washington Conference of 1921–22, there was a sharp conflict among the participating powers over ownership of the railway. Under a Sino-Soviet agreement on May 31, 1924, the Chinese Eastern Railway was recognized as a purely commercial enterprise, jointly administered by the USSR and China. In 1929, Chinese militarists made an attack on the railway and on the Soviet borders but were repulsed by Red Army units. In 1931, after the occupation of northeast China (Manchuria) by Japan, the area near the railway became the scene of persistent anti-Soviet provocations by the Japanese imperialists. In 1935 the USSR was obliged to sell the Chinese Eastern Railway to the Manchukuo authorities for the small sum of 140 million yen.

After the liberation of northeast China by the Red Army and the defeat of Japan in World War II the South Manchurian Railway and the Chinese Eastern Railway came under joint administration by the USSR and China, through the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Aug. 14, 1945. The line was renamed the Chinese Ch’angch’un Railway. The Soviet Union helped rebuild and restore it to service. After the formation of the People’s Republic of China, and in accordance with a new Sino-Soviet agreement on the railway on Feb. 14, 1950, the Soviet government transferred to the People’s Republic of China, without compensation, all its rights in the joint administration of the railway, with all properties appertaining to it (the transfer was formalized by the protocol of Dec. 31, 1952).

A. M. MALUKHIN

References in periodicals archive ?
They were standard features of the Harbin she knew as a child, a city constructed in the late 19th century as a Far Eastern outpost of imperial Russia, a base for the Chinese Eastern Railway in what was once known as Manchuria.
In 1898, Russian engineers and workers from both Russia and China came to build the Chinese Eastern Railway.
Russia was the de facto colonial ruler of a concession zone in Northern Manchuria under the guise of the Russian-controlled Chinese Eastern Railway (CER), a massive concern that dominated the regional economy and took on government functions such as raising taxes, running schools, and providing security.
Individual chapters explore these dynamics in the administration of criminal justice, the Chinese Eastern Railway, land tenure, municipal governance, and secondary and post-secondary education.
Soon after the revolution, Heilongjiang cities along the Chinese Eastern Railway witnessed robbery by Russian bandits.
In 1919, a band of three hundred men looted more than fifty firms at Yimianpo, a town on the Chinese Eastern Railway.
The Tsarist government had used its colonial rights to build a railway line in northern Manchuria at the end of the nineteenth century, and the rights to the line, the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER), were inherited by the USSR after 1917.
The Chinese Eastern Railway, the shorter southern branch, intersected the Chinese frontier at Manchuria Station, crossed Northern Manchuria through Harbin, the line's center for administration, and reached the Russian frontier again at Podgranitsa, a few hours from Vladivostok.
Happily for Johnson, however, Stevens received permission from Russian officials in Harbin for a contingent of the unit to begin work along the Chinese Eastern Railway.
Edward Glatfelter emphasizes this by showing how the Chinese Eastern Railway acted as first Russia's and then Japan's highway to domination in northern China.
In China he located the files of the Chinese Eastern Railway Land Department, the core archive of the Jewish Community of Harbin, and the largest remaining chunk of the Chinese Eastern Railway library.
It continued to resist, occupying the towns along the eastern section of the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER), between Harbin and the Soviet border.