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the imperial Manchu dynasty that ruled in China from 1644 to 1912. The Manchu feudal lords established their power in China by conquest.
The reign of the Ch’ing Dynasty may be divided into four major periods. The first covers the years 1644 to 1683, from the Manchu invasion of China to the establishment of Ch’ing power throughout Taiwan and the area previously governed by the Ming Dynasty. The period embraces the reign of Shunchih and part of the reign of K’anghsi.
The second period, from the 1680’s to the 1770’s, was a time of internal consolidation and expansionist campaigns against, for example, the Dzungarian Khanate, Tibet, East Turkestan, Vietnam, Burma, Nepal, the Mongol principalities of Khalkha, and Russian settlements on the Amur. This period includes the second part of K’anghsi’s reign, the rule of Yungcheng, and the first part of Ch’ienlung’s reign.
The third period, from the 1770’s to the end of the 19th century, was marked by decay within the Ch’ing monarchy; the decay intensified in the mid-19th century as a result of the aggression of capitalist powers. This period covers the second part of Ch’ienlung’s reign, the rules of Chiach’ing, Taokuang, Hsienfen, and T’ungchih, and most of Kuang Hsu’s reign.
The fourth period extends from the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95 to the abdication of the last Ch’ing emperor; during this period the process of the transformation of the Ch’ing Empire into a quasi colony of the imperialist powers was completed. As a result of the Hsinhai Revolution, the Ch’ing Dynasty was overthrown. The last Manchu emperor, P’u-i, officially abdicated on Feb. 12, 1912.
REFERENCESNovaia istoriia Kitaia. Moscow, 1972.
Man’chzhurskoe vladychestvo v Kitae (collection of articles). Moscow, 1966.
S. L. TIKHVINSKII