Genghis Khan

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Genghis Khan:

see Jenghiz KhanJenghiz Khan
or Genghis Khan
, Mongolian Chinggis Khaan, 1167?–1227, Mongol conqueror, originally named Temujin. He succeeded his father, Yekusai, as chieftain of a Mongol tribe and then fought to become ruler of a Mongol confederacy.
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Genghis Khan

 

(personal name, Temujin). Born circa 1155, in the district of Deliun-Boldok, on the Onon River; died Aug. 25, 1227. Military leader and founder of the unified Mongol empire.

Genghis Khan was the son of Yesugei, a member of the royal Borjigin clan. By 1204 he had eliminated his principal rivals and, having seized vast territories, became the de facto ruler of the many clan-tribal alliances in the subjugated regions. In 1206, at a khurultai (assembly) of the steppe aristocracy, he was proclaimed the great khan of all the tribes and was given the title Genghis, from the Turkic tengis (ocean, sea).

In domestic policy, Genghis Khan concentrated on uniting the Mongol tribes and centralizing the government of the newly created state in the interests of the feudalized clan-tribal aristocracy. In 1206 he promulgated decrees that constituted a codification of customary law (yasa). He divided the Mongol tribes into military-administrative units called thousands: at the command of the khan each unit had to produce 1,000 mounted soldiers. The thousands, along with pasturelands, were granted as fiefs (khubi) to his relatives and to the noions —members of a new class of feudal lords made up of his trusted lieutenants. Genghis Khan created a personal guard (keshig) of 10,000 men that served as the principal force in the suppression of any stirrings of discontent in the empire.

In foreign policy, Genghis Khan sought to extend the territory under his control as far as possible. His strategy and tactics were based on thorough reconnaissance and sudden attack; his troops tried to divide the enemy forces and set up ambushes using special detachments to lure the enemy. He also made use of large groups of cavalry that could maneuver quickly.

Genghis Khan subdued the peoples of Siberia and eastern Turkestan between 1207 and 1211 and attacked the Jurchen kingdom of Chin in 1211 (seeMONGOL CONQUESTS OF THE 13TH CENTURY). These wars, waged in the interests of the noion class, wreaked havoc on the peoples of the subjugated countries, most of which had achieved a higher level of economic and cultural development than the Mongol tribes, and hampered the development of the Mongol empire itself and the broad masses of its people—the simple arats (herdsmen bound to the land). The wars exhausted the empire and led to its political, economic, and cultural decline by the end of the 13th century. Genghis Khan died in the Tangut state of Hsi Hsia during a campaign undertaken in 1226.

REFERENCES

Tataro-mongoly v Azii i Evrope: Sb. st. Moscow, 1970.
Kychanov, E. I. Zhizn’ Temuchzhina, dumavshevo pokorit’ mir. Moscow, 1973.

N. TS. MUNKUEV

Genghis Khan

(1167–1227) Mongol chieftain overran most of Asia and eastern Europe (1206–1227). [Asian Hist.: EB, 7: 1013–1016]

Genghis Khan

original name Temuchin or Temujin. ?1162--1227, Mongol ruler, whose empire stretched from the Black Sea to the Pacific
References in periodicals archive ?
At the Chinggisiin Tahilga, the Chinggis Khan Sacrificial Ceremony, for instance, a sheep is taken into the ceremonial site, killed and boiled, while a ritual master stands chanting prayers, amid wafts of smoke-filled air with incense aroma.
The worship of Chinggis Khan is categorised as reflective belief based on Sperber's second-order belief that is supported by materiality via intuitive belief, and the communication/transformation process.
22) In 1635, after the death of Ligden Khan--who was the last emperor of the Northern Yuan dynasty (born in 1588, and reigned from 1604 to 1634), self-proclaimed as Chinggis Khan and who held the Chinggisid seal in his possession--his son surrendered to the Manchus, and "Ligden's imperial seal went into the possession of Hong Taiji", the second ruler of the Manchu alliance.
Kravitz, expedition leader for The Chinggis Khan Expedition.
The Chinggis Khan Expedition, officially began in 1993, and initiated work in the field in 1999.
CONTACT: Information for Chinggis Khan Expedition, +1-800-284-2135
It may well be that historians such as al-Nuwayri knew that Chinggis Khan was unlikely to have met a lama in northwest Mongolia early in his career, and this possibly further strengthens the claim that bakhshi refers here to shaman and not lama.
The main theme of this passage, the Jewish instructor of Chinggis Khan (or rather Temuchin, his given name, since this is early on in his career before he received the title by which he is usually known) and the advice he gave, does not have parallel in any of the sources for early Mongol history known to me.
1363), devotes two pages to Chinggis Khan in his biographical compendium, al-Wafi bi'l-wafayat.
76) In general, a hundred years after Chinggis Khan the Mongol attitude toward agriculture had become much more complex than it had been earlier.
91) A fuller list of Changhadaid commanders from the tribe of Temur, the Barlas, whose appanage was in the region of Kesh in Transoxiana, is given in the Mu iz al-ansab for the period from the rise of Chinggis Khan to the rise of Temur.