Genghis Khan

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Genghis Khan:

see Jenghiz KhanJenghiz Khan
or Genghis Khan
, Mongolian Chinggis Khaan, 1167?–1227, Mongol conqueror, originally named Temujin. He succeeded his father, Yekusai, as chieftain of a Mongol tribe and then fought to become ruler of a Mongol confederacy.
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Genghis Khan

 

(personal name, Temujin). Born circa 1155, in the district of Deliun-Boldok, on the Onon River; died Aug. 25, 1227. Military leader and founder of the unified Mongol empire.

Genghis Khan was the son of Yesugei, a member of the royal Borjigin clan. By 1204 he had eliminated his principal rivals and, having seized vast territories, became the de facto ruler of the many clan-tribal alliances in the subjugated regions. In 1206, at a khurultai (assembly) of the steppe aristocracy, he was proclaimed the great khan of all the tribes and was given the title Genghis, from the Turkic tengis (ocean, sea).

In domestic policy, Genghis Khan concentrated on uniting the Mongol tribes and centralizing the government of the newly created state in the interests of the feudalized clan-tribal aristocracy. In 1206 he promulgated decrees that constituted a codification of customary law (yasa). He divided the Mongol tribes into military-administrative units called thousands: at the command of the khan each unit had to produce 1,000 mounted soldiers. The thousands, along with pasturelands, were granted as fiefs (khubi) to his relatives and to the noions —members of a new class of feudal lords made up of his trusted lieutenants. Genghis Khan created a personal guard (keshig) of 10,000 men that served as the principal force in the suppression of any stirrings of discontent in the empire.

In foreign policy, Genghis Khan sought to extend the territory under his control as far as possible. His strategy and tactics were based on thorough reconnaissance and sudden attack; his troops tried to divide the enemy forces and set up ambushes using special detachments to lure the enemy. He also made use of large groups of cavalry that could maneuver quickly.

Genghis Khan subdued the peoples of Siberia and eastern Turkestan between 1207 and 1211 and attacked the Jurchen kingdom of Chin in 1211 (seeMONGOL CONQUESTS OF THE 13TH CENTURY). These wars, waged in the interests of the noion class, wreaked havoc on the peoples of the subjugated countries, most of which had achieved a higher level of economic and cultural development than the Mongol tribes, and hampered the development of the Mongol empire itself and the broad masses of its people—the simple arats (herdsmen bound to the land). The wars exhausted the empire and led to its political, economic, and cultural decline by the end of the 13th century. Genghis Khan died in the Tangut state of Hsi Hsia during a campaign undertaken in 1226.

REFERENCES

Tataro-mongoly v Azii i Evrope: Sb. st. Moscow, 1970.
Kychanov, E. I. Zhizn’ Temuchzhina, dumavshevo pokorit’ mir. Moscow, 1973.

N. TS. MUNKUEV

Genghis Khan

(1167–1227) Mongol chieftain overran most of Asia and eastern Europe (1206–1227). [Asian Hist.: EB, 7: 1013–1016]

Genghis Khan

original name Temuchin or Temujin. ?1162--1227, Mongol ruler, whose empire stretched from the Black Sea to the Pacific
References in periodicals archive ?
The inclusion of Ogodei is odd as it adds little to the biography of Chinggis Khan.
In the end, the book is less a biography of Chinggis Khan but more of an uneven history of the early Mongol Empire.
While the Chinggis Khan Mausoleum, located in Ordos of Inner Mongolia, is a memorial to the great conqueror, his burial site is difficult to locate.
In chapters 4 and 5, "The Chinggisid Legacy in the Muslim World" and "From the Accursed to the Revered Father and Back: Changing Images of Chinggis Khan in the Muslim World," Biran explains how initially Chinggis Khan and the Mongols were described as instruments of God's punishment, which was confirmed in Islamic writers by the Mongols of the Ilkhanate and Ulus of Jochi converting to Islam.
Rumors also existed that the success of Chinggis Khan was due to his "humble supplications before God" (Jamil 1986, 33-34).
The book is organized in eight chapters following the predictable chronological narrative of most Chinggis Khan biographies, including the mandatory chapter on the Mongol military.
Rashid al-Din was probably referring to the same ritual when he mentioned that Ghazan Khan had participated in the traditional Mongol ritual of hanging cloth streamers to a tree and dancing around it; the same, he noted, was done by Qutula Khan, an ancestor of Chinggis Khan in Mongolia.
It is based on a statement in Rashid al-Din's Jami' al-tawarikh that four 1,000s (supposedly meaning clans) were assigned by Chinggis khan to his eldest son Jochi.
Chinggis Khan said: "If I love God and devote myself to him, will he reward me?
68) Ibn Battuta, who defines Buzan as "an ill-tainted and evil Muslim," gives more specific--and often quoted--reasons for Buzan's opposition to Tarmashirin: Tarmashirin abrogated the Yasa of Chinggis Khan by not conducting the annual toy, an assembly of the princes and nobility who had the power to depose a khan, nor did he visit his eastern territories and especially Almaliq, the former Chaghadaid capital on the Ili river, for four years (i.
Here the argument is that each illustration in the Demotte copy of the Shah-Nama (as reconstructed in 1980 by Grabar and Blair) was designed to have a dual representation, in that it evoked not merely an episode recounted in the text but at the same time one from Mongol history from Chinggis Khan down to the reign of Abu Sa id.
While listening to a discussion of this book in class, it struck me that much of what Professor Manz writes with justice about Timur might be said about the methods used by Chinggis Khan at the turn of the thirteenth century.