a Neolithic archaeological culture (late fourth millennium B.C.) in East China, in what is now Kiangsu Province. The principal occupation of the population was rice growing, although hunting and especially fishing were also important in the economy. The pottery was hand modeled and sometimes painted. Characteristic tools included trapezoidal stone axes, long harvesting knives, and adzes. Among the burial finds were stone tools, clay distaffs, and ornaments made of bone and nephrite. The Ch’inglienkang culture was replaced by the Lungshan culture in what is now the northern part of Kiangsu Province and by the Liangchu late Neolithic culture in the southern part.