chlamydia

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chlamydia

(kləmĭd`ēə), genus of microorganisms that cause a variety of diseases in humans and other animals. Psittacosis, or parrot fever, caused by the species Chlamydia psittaci, is transmitted to people by birds, particularly parrots, parakeets, and lovebirds. In birds the disease takes the form of an intestinal infection, but in people it runs the course of a viral pneumonia. Different forms of Chlamydia trachomatis cause trachomatrachoma
, infection of the mucous membrane of the eyelids caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Trachoma affects at least 86 million people worldwide. An estimated 1.
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, an infection of the mucous membrane of the eyelids, and the sexually transmitted diseasesexually transmitted disease
(STD) or venereal disease,
term for infections acquired mainly through sexual contact. Five diseases were traditionally known as venereal diseases: gonorrhea, syphilis, and the less common granuloma inguinale, lymphogranuloma venereum, and
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 lymphogranuloma venereum. This same species also causes the sexually transmitted disease called chlamydia, the most common such disease in the United States. In women, chlamydia is a common cause of pelvic inflammatory diseasepelvic inflammatory disease
(PID), infection of the female reproductive organs, usually resulting from infection with the bacteria that cause chlamydia or gonorrhea. The infection typically first affects the cervical area, then spreads to the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries,
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, which can result in infertility and an increased risk of tubal pregnancy. Men are the primary carriers, but painful urination and discharge often prompt men to get treatment before the testes can be infected and male infertility can result. Chlamydial infections can be treated with antibiotics such as tetracycline.

Chlamydia

A genus of bacteria with a growth cycle differing from that of all other microorganisms. Chlamydiae grow only in living cells and cannot be cultured on artificial media. Although capable of synthesizing macromolecules, they have no system for generating energy; the host cell's energy system fuels the chlamydial metabolic processes. The genome is relatively small; the genomes of C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis have been completely sequenced.

The chlamydial infectious particle, called the elementary body, is round and about 350–450 nanometers in diameter. It enters a susceptible host cell and changes to a metabolically active and larger (approximately 800–1000 nm in diameter) reticulate body that divides by binary fission. The entire growth cycle occurs within a vacuole that segregates the chlamydia from the cytoplasm of the host cell. The reticulate bodies change back to elementary bodies, and then the cell lyses and the infectious particles are released. The growth cycle takes about 48 h.

Human diseases are caused by three species of Chlamydia. Chlamydia trachomatis is almost exclusively a human pathogen, and one of the most common. Infections occur in two distinct epidemiologic patterns. In many developing countries, C. trachomatis causes trachoma, a chronic follicular keratoconjunctivitis. It is the world's leading cause of preventable blindness, affecting approximately 500 million people. In areas where this condition is highly endemic, virtually the entire population is infected within the first few years of life. Most active infections are found in childhood. By age 60, more than 20% of a population can be blinded as a result of trachoma. See Eye disorders

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen; an estimated 3–4 million cases occur each year in the United States, and there are close to 90 million worldwide. The most common manifestation is nongonococcal urethritis in males. The cervix is the most commonly infected site in women. Ascending infections can occur in either sex, resulting in epididymitis in males or endometritis and salpingitis in females. Chlamydial infection of the fallopian tube can cause late consequences such as infertility and ectopic pregnancy, even though the earlier infection is asymptomatic. The infant passing through the infected birth canal can acquire the infection and may develop either conjunctivitis or pneumonia. A more invasive form of C. trachomatis causes a systemic sexually transmitted disease called lymphogranuloma venereum. See Sexually transmitted diseases

Chlamydia psittaci is virtually ubiquitous among avian species and is a common pathogen among lower mammals. It is economically important in many countries as a cause of abortion in sheep, cattle, and goats. It causes considerable morbidity and mortality in poultry. Chlamydia psittaci can infect humans, causing the disease psittacosis. Psittacosis can occur as pneumonia or a febrile toxic disease without respiratory symptoms.

Chlamydia pneumoniae appears to be a human pathogen with no animal reservoir. It is of worldwide distribution and may be the most common human chlamydial infection. It appears to be an important cause of respiratory disease.

Azithromycin is the drug of choice for uncomplicated chlamydial infection of the genital tract. Two therapeutic agents require longer treatment regimens: doxycycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, is the first alternate treatment; erythromycin may be used for those who are tetracycline-intolerant, as well as for pregnant women or young children. See Medical bacteriology

Chlamydia

[klə′mid·ē·ə]
(microbiology)
The single genus of the family Chlamydiaceae.
References in periodicals archive ?
6,230 Number of chlamydia infections here in 2013 - the most common STI 160 Amount of syphilis cases which were recorded in Ireland in 2013 15-25 age group accounts for 67% of chlamydia and 39% of gonorrhoea cases 270 cases of gonorrhoea were recorded in Ireland in 2004 1,264 gonorrhoea infections were recorded just two years ago 60% Percentage of EU gonorrhoea cases found in the UK We hear that more people are being less careful over condom use DR AISLING LOY dublin yesterday
We did not include data for 14-year-old males due to the small number of chlamydia infections in this group.
5) Thus it is conceivable that Chlamydia infections may also vary significantly among different ethnic groups in Canada.
A 2004-2006 study of 557 HIV-positive people in four US cities detected new chlamydia infections only in 365 MSM, not in 73 men who have sex with women or 119 women.
Women with asymptomatic chlamydia infections are less likely to seek medical attention than women with genital tract symptoms (Novy 2008).
Reasons for the sharp increase of genital chlamydia infections reported in the first months of 2007 in Sweden.
According to Ripa, surveillance showed that the mutant strain was responsible for 22 percent of Swedish chlamydia infections and posed a serious public health problem.
PORTON DOWN, England, November 9 /PRNewswire/ -- Enigma Diagnostics, the life sciences company developing rapid molecular diagnostics and detection systems, announces that it has successfully completed a project commissioned by the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dtsl) to develop a rapid, point-of-care diagnostic system for screening and diagnosis(1) of Chlamydia infections, the most common treatable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the UK.
Scientists are looking for better ways to diagnose, treat and prevent chlamydia infections.
This explanation is especially applicable for chlamydia infections, because low-income women seeking prenatal care are routinely screened for the disease.
It is also reflected in the increase in the rate of the sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea, chlamydia infections,'' he said.
Chlamydia infections are caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis and gonococcal infections are caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.