in cattle: commensals, trigger organisms, or pathogens?
Although some Chlamydiaceae
screening tests and strain-typing methods exist, they are expensive, are time-consuming, require trained personnel, and are available only in specialized laboratories; most do not discriminate among species of Chlamydiaceae
Rapid detection of the Chlamydiaceae
and other families in the order Chlamydiales: three PCR tests.
Transmission electron microscopic examination of the liver of a yellow spotted newt revealed intracellular inclusions containing particles matching the morphology of reticulate or elementary bodies of Chlamydiaceae
(online Technical Appendix, wwwnc.
trachomatis (strains D/ UW-3/CX  and A/Har-13 ), Chlamydia muridarum (rodent strain MoPn ), Chlamydophila pneumoniae (human strains AR39 ; CWL029 , and J138 ), and Chlamydophila caviae (guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis strain ), the most distantly related species of Chlamydiaceae
The real-time PCR for Chlamydiaceae
was conducted on an ABI 7500 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) by using a modified version of Everett's PCR (6).
With mounting evidence for widespread interstrain recombination among intracellular bacteria such as Chlamydiaceae
(8,10,21-23,28), the A/SA1 coinfection with C.
psittaci seropositivity between women who had anti-Waddlia antibodies and those who did not, which suggests that Waddlia antibodies do not cross-react with Chlamydiaceae
Her primary research interests include Chlamydiaceae
host-cell interactions, diagnosis, epidemiology, vaccine development, and animal models for studying protective immune responses after C.
Since elementary and reticulate bodies are similar in both Chlamydiaceae
and Parachlamydiaceae (6), Chlamydiales cannot be identified in a specimen solely by electron microscopy.
This scheme of nomenclature has largely been accepted, although splitting the family Chlamydiaceae
into 2 genera, Chlamydia and Chlamydophila, raised some concerns (25).
Our findings raise the possibility that Chlamydiaceae
other than Chlamydia trachomatis are involved in PID.