Chlidonias


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Chlidonias

 

(in Russian, bolotnye krachki), a genus of birds of the gull family. The name includes three varieties: the black tern (C. nigra), white-winged tern (C. leucoptera),and whiskered tern (C. hybrida). Body length is 25–28 cm. Plumage is bluish black with white; the black tern has a white rump, the white-winged has white upper covert feathers, rudder feathers, and undertail, and the whiskered has white cheeks and throat. Widely distributed (excluding the north) in Europe, Asia, and North America, as well as in Africa and Australia, Chlidonias is a migratory bird. It nests in colonies in swampy meadows, swamps, and the shores of reservoirs overgrown with thick grassy vegetation. There are two to three eggs per laying; both parents sit on the eggs (18 days).

REFERENCE

Ptitsy Sovetskogo Soiuza, vol. 3. Edited by G. P. Dement’ev and N. A. Gladkhov. Moscow, 1951.
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Numbers, distribution and protection of Black Terns Chlidonias niger breeding in Germany 1990-2003 with comparisons to the Netherlands.
The Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hyhrida expansion in Poland: the role of immigration.
Numerous nesting of the Whitewinged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus in Poland in 2010.
The use of artificial nesting platforms by Black Terns Chlidonias niger and White-winged Terns Ch.
Black Tern Chlidonias niger conservation in the Netherlands - a review.
A population model for the Black Tern Chlidonias niger in West-Europe.