chloramine

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Related to Chloramines: chlorine dioxide, Monochloramine

chloramine:

see hydrazinehydrazine
, chemical compound, formula NH2NH2, m.p. 1.4°C;, b.p. 113.5°C;, specific gravity 1.011 at 15°C;. It is very soluble in water and soluble in alcohol.
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Chloramine

 

any one of a group of chloroderivatives of ammonia (inorganic chloramines) or amines (organic chloramines), whose molecules contain a chlorine atom bonded to nitrogen. (For a discussion of inorganic chloramines, seeNITROGEN CHLORIDE.)

Organic chloramines are liquids or solids, with a pungent odor that irritates the upper respiratory tract. They include the liquids N-chlorodimethylamine, (CH3)2NCl, which boils at 46°C, N,N-dichloromethylamine, CH3NCl2, which boils at 58°–60°C, and N,N-dichloroethylamine, C2H5NCl2, and N-chlorodiethylamine, (C2H5)2NCl, which boils at 91°C. Hexachloromelamine, whose structural formula is

is a yellow crystalline compound with a melting point of 149°C.

Chloramines decompose in the presence of water, including atmospheric moisture, with the formation of an amine and hypochlorous acid, HOCl. Solutions of chloramines in organic solvents are rather stable. Chloramines are produced by the action of chlorine or hypochlorous acid on amines and amine salts.

The term “chloramine” is often used to denote any N-chloro-derivative of the amides of organic and inorganic acids. Chloramides and dichloramides of aromatic sulfonic acids have found great practical use. Chloramine-B, C6H5SO2NNaCl · 3H2O (the sodium salt of the N-chloramide of benzenesulfonic acid), and chloramine-T, (CH3)C6H4SO2NNaCl · 3H2O (the sodium salt of the N-chloramide of p-toluenesulfonic acid), are colorless crystals with a melting point of 180°–185°C and 175°–180°C, respectively; they are readily soluble in water and ethanol. Dichloramine-B (N,N-dichloro-benzenesulfonamide) and dichloramine-T (N,N-dichloro-p-toluenesulfonamide) are crystals with an odor of chlorine and a melting point of 69°–72°C and 80°–83°C, respectively; they are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents, usually dichloroethane.

Chloramines have oxidizing and chlorinating properties and consequently are used in analytical chemistry and in industry, for example, in the textile industry to bleach fabrics; they are also used as decontaminants. In medicine, chloramines, mainly chloramine-B, are used as antiseptics. Chloramine-B, which contains 25–29 percent active chlorine, is also used as a deodorizer and spermatocide. A 0.25–0.5 percent solution of chloramine-B is used to disinfect hands, while a 1–5 percent solution of chloramine-B, chloramine-T, or dichloramine are used to decontaminate utensils and excretions of patients with intestinal and respiratory infections. Chloramines are also used for chlorination of water (Pantocid tablets), treatment of infected wounds, and decontamination of hands and nonmetallic equipment.

References in periodicals archive ?
An article in the newsletter of the Professional Pool Operators of America seems to support the theory that chloramines and other by-products of chlorination stay near the pool water surface.
BACKGROUND: More municipal water treatment plants are using chloramines as a disinfectant in order to reduce carcinogenic by-products.
DWP officials are advising people with kidney problems to contact their doctors, and telling fish owners to check with pet stores for information on removing chloramines from the water.
Chloramines have been suspected as a cause of occupational asthma and pneumonitis among lifeguards (Massin et al.
We stand by our hypothesis that the effect of chloramines on blood lead levels would be less important in newer housing stock.
Further testing revealed the presence of chloramines compounds, a residual disinfectant added to the water system by the local municipality, at the outlet of the generation system and even at points-of-use.
Kidney dialysis patients are warned of the change, which can be harmful to that process, and aquatic pet owners are advised to check with pet stores on change they must make to aquariums because chloramines can be toxic to fish, amphibians and reptiles.
2006) assumed, and later confirmed, that the change in disinfection from chlorine to chloramines had altered the leaching of lead from the interior surface of lead service lines, causing lead levels in tap water to rise.
Since August, the water agency has been running an education campaign targeting kidney patients because chloramines must be removed from water before use in any dialysis treatment process.
For example, after ingesting microbes, neutrophils produce hydrogen peroxide and convert some of it to hypochlorous acid and chloramines, which are disinfectant chemicals.
Using chloramines as the disinfection agent will reduce disinfection by-products.
But in some water systems this switch has coincided with an increase in lead in drinking water, perhaps because chloramines cause lead to leach from pipes, fixtures, and solder.