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(chŏk`tô), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Muskogean branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They formerly occupied central and S Mississippi with some outlying groups in Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana. Choctaw culture was similar to that of the Creek and Chickasaw, who were their enemies in repeated wars. The Choctaw economy was based on agriculture, and the Choctaw were perhaps the most competent farmers in the Southeast. Friendly toward the French colonists, the Choctaw were their allies in wars against other tribes. After being forced to cede their lands in Alabama and Mississippi, they moved (1832) to the Indian TerritoryIndian Territory,
in U.S. history, name applied to the country set aside for Native Americans by the Indian Intercourse Act (1834). In the 1820s, the federal government began moving the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, and Chickasaw) of the Southeast to
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 in Oklahoma, where they became one of the Five Civilized Tribes. In 1990 there were over 85,000 Choctaw in the United States, with more than half living in Oklahoma.


See A. Debo, The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic (3d ed. 1967); A. H. DeRosier, The Removal of the Choctaw Indians (1971); W. D. Baird, Peter Pitchlynn: Chief of the Choctaws (1972); C. K. Reeves, The Choctaw Before Removal (1985).

References in periodicals archive ?
Philadelphia, Mississippi: Choctaw Heritage Press, Mississippi Band Of Choctaw Indians, 1982), 20-21.
Despite this, the Choctaw Indian being interviewed is described comically: "The Choctaw is dirty.
In June 2003, Abramoff persuaded DeLay to organize a letter, co-signed by House Speaker Dennis Hastert, Majority Whip Roy Blunt and Chief Deputy Majority Whip Eric Cantor, to endorse a view of gambling law benefiting the Louisiana Coushatta tribe's effort to block gambling competition by another tribe, the Jena Band of Choctaw Indians.
The petitioner claims its members descend from a historical Choctaw Indian tribe.
But now the Choctaw Indians of Mississippi are struggling to cope in the aftermath of their own great tragedy, Hurricane Katrina.
Sharp, formerly the social services director for the Mississippi Band of the Choctaw Indians with a $2.
Small Business Administration (SBA) as a Tribally-owned 8(a), HUBZone, Small Disadvantaged Business and is wholly-owned by the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians.
Boys and Girls Club of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, Conehatta, Miss.
Wilde's mom, Chenoa, grew up on the farm, which has been in her family since it was petitioned from the Choctaw Indians in the 1800s.
They include the Poarch Band Creek in Alabama, Coushatta India Tribe, Jena Band of Choctaw and Tunica-Biloxi Tribe in Louisiana, and the Chitimacha Tribe and the Choctaw Indians in Mississippi.
There's another song I'm working on about the Choctaw Indians who gave money to the Irish people during the famine.
That proud tribe, now known as the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, prospers, and their Pearl River Resort is an unparalleled economic engine that draws tourists from all over the Southeast.