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(chŏk`tô), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Muskogean branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They formerly occupied central and S Mississippi with some outlying groups in Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana. Choctaw culture was similar to that of the Creek and Chickasaw, who were their enemies in repeated wars. The Choctaw economy was based on agriculture, and the Choctaw were perhaps the most competent farmers in the Southeast. Friendly toward the French colonists, the Choctaw were their allies in wars against other tribes. After being forced to cede their lands in Alabama and Mississippi, they moved (1832) to the Indian TerritoryIndian Territory,
in U.S. history, name applied to the country set aside for Native Americans by the Indian Intercourse Act (1834). In the 1820s, the federal government began moving the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, and Chickasaw) of the Southeast to
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 in Oklahoma, where they became one of the Five Civilized Tribes. In 1990 there were over 85,000 Choctaw in the United States, with more than half living in Oklahoma.


See A. Debo, The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic (3d ed. 1967); A. H. DeRosier, The Removal of the Choctaw Indians (1971); W. D. Baird, Peter Pitchlynn: Chief of the Choctaws (1972); C. K. Reeves, The Choctaw Before Removal (1985).

References in periodicals archive ?
None of these removals was successful at vacating all Mississippi Choctaws but then along came Massachusetts Senator Henry L.
12) The end of Indian Territory also results in the end of all-Indian baseball teams such as the Miko Kings; the novel represents this loss as synecdochical of the loss of land and cultural traditions born in the new home the Choctaws have made for themselves since Jacksonian Removal.
In fact, they were working on behalf of the Choctaw Indians in neighboring Mississippi, who feared that an Alabama casino would cut into their action.
But now the Choctaw Indians of Mississippi are struggling to cope in the aftermath of their own great tragedy, Hurricane Katrina.
To celebrate this friendship, Mississippians are invited to attend the Choctaw Indian Fair, held on the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians Reservation in Choctaw, July 9-12.
The Choctaws, far from resisting Christianity, invited Christian missionaries to teach them what they knew, including the contents of the Bible, and how to read and write (Kidwell, 1995).
Although, up to 1763, they mainly allied with French colonists on the Gulf coast against the British and their Chickasaw allies, periodic shortages of French goods and factionalism among chiefs of the traditional Eastern, Western, and Southern divisions led some Choctaws to turn to the British.
But rather than using this success story as an example of the benefits of economic and political freedom--not to mention a call for increased Amerindian autonomy--Osborn wields the Choctaw experience as a bludgeon against other native nations who have not been equally competitive.
Even as the deerskin trade declined, Choctaws continued to camp outside Natchez to sell vegetables, baskets, mats, and meat.
If you want to see the Big Woods as Faulkner or, better yet, as the Choctaw Indians knew these massive cathedral forests, the best place--actually the only place on a massive scale--is along the lower White River and Cache River in eastern Arkansas.
It is an opportunity to meet other Choctaws who are going through the same experience as you.
She also discusses the extensive efforts of the Mississippi Choctaws toward preserving their history through acts such as the creation of the Choctaw Heritage Council.